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- A mucocutaneous disorder caused by infection with various Candida spp.
- >20 Candida species cause infection in humans, most common is Candida albicans.
- Areas include:
- Oropharyngeal candidiasis: Mouth, pharynx
- Angular cheilitis: Fissures at mouth corners
- Candida esophagitis: Esophagus
- GI candidiasis: Gastritis and/or ulcers, associated with thrush; in tract or perianal
- Candida vulvovaginitis: Vaginal mucosa and/or cutaneous aspects of the vulva
- Candidal balanitis: Glans penis
- Candidal paronychia: Nail bed of a digit
- Folliculitis: Hair follicles
- Interdigital candidiasis: Webs of the digits
- System(s) affected: Oropharynx; GI; Skin/Exocrine; Genitourinary
- Synonym(s): Monilia; Thrush; Yeast
Vaginal antifungal creams and suppositories can weaken condoms and diaphragms.
No known fetal complications of maternal Candida
- Common in the US; very common with immunodeficiency and/or uncontrolled diabetes
- Predominant age: None:
- Infants and seniors: Thrush and cutaneous infections (infant diaper rash)
- Women of childbearing age: Vaginitis
- Prepubertal or postmenopausal: Yeast vaginitis uncommon
- Predominant sex: Female > Male
Not well studied, estimate 50/100,000 annually
Candida species are normal inhabitants of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and rest of the GI tract; present in >50% of US population.
- Immunosuppression, including HIV
- Hormonal fluctuations in women
- Antibacterial therapy, especially broad-spectrum antibiotics
- Douches, chemical irritants, and other vaginitides can predispose to yeast vaginitis.
- Birth control pills
- Hyperglycemia; diabetes
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a heterogeneous, genetic syndrome with infection of the skin, nails, hair, and mucous membranes; presents in infancy or childhood, onset over age 30 is rare. Uncertain mode of inheritance
- Minimize antibiotic use.
- Minimize inhaled and systemic steroid use; rinse mouth after inhaled steroid use (1)[A].
- Avoid douching.
- Treat other vaginitides.
- Minimize moist environments (e.g., wear cotton underwear).
- Clean dentures often; use well-fitting dentures.
- Control diabetes (if present).
- Fluconazole prophylaxis against oral candidiasis in HIV-infected adults (2)[A].
C. albicans predominant (responsible for 80–92% vulvovaginal and 70–80% oral isolates)
Commonly Associated Conditions
- HIV and other leukopenias
- Diabetes mellitus
- Cancer and other immunosuppressive disorders
- Disorders requiring corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive chemotherapy