In 1995, the World Health Organization (WHO) defined cardiomyopathy as a “disease of the myocardium associated with cardiac dysfunction.” The WHO proposed a classification system based on pathophysiology (1). Each class may be caused by many disorders, and some disorders may overlap classes:
- Classification of cardiomyopathy:
- Dilated (systolic):
- Characterized by dilation and reduced systolic function of 1 or both ventricles
- Hypertrophic (diastolic):
- Left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy with normal to reduced end diastolic volumes
- May include asymmetric septal hypertrophy
- Cause of sudden cardiac death in young athletes
- Restrictive (diastolic):
- Restrictive filling and reduced diastolic volume of either or both ventricles
- Systolic function may be near normal.
- Etiology: Idiopathic, amyloidosis, etc.
- Arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) dysplasia:
- Fibrofatty replacement of the RV
- May present with arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death in the young
- Cases that do not fit easily into 1 group (i.e., noncompacted myocardium)
- Specific: Includes patients with cardiomyopathy in association with a known systemic disorder:
- End-stage cardiomyopathy patients have stage D heart failure or severe symptoms at rest refractory to standard medical therapy.
- System(s) affected: Cardiovascular; Renal
Etiology: Idiopathic, viral, congenital heart disease, and familialPregnancy Considerations
May occur in women postpartum
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