Cirrhosis of the Liver
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A chronic disease in which liver cell injury causes inflammation, necrosis, and stellate cell activation, leading to liver failure and/or cancer.
- Predominant age: 40–50 years old
- Predominant sex: Male > Female; but more women get cirrhosis from alcohol abuse.
- 9th leading cause of death among all US adults
Alcohol abuse; IV drug abuse; obesity; blood transfusion
Hemochromatosis, Wilson disease, and α-1-antitrypsin deficiency in adults
- Counsel patients to prevent risk factors for chronic liver disease (e.g., alcohol abuse); >80% of chronic liver disease is preventable.
- Limit alcohol consumption to <2 drinks/d and advise weight loss for obesity:
- Chronic hepatitis C (26%)
- Alcohol abuse (21%)
- Hepatitis C with alcohol liver disease (15%)
- Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis/obesity (~10%)
- Hepatitis B + hepatitis D infection (15%)
- Other: Hemochromatosis; autoimmune hepatitis; primary biliary cirrhosis; secondary biliary cirrhosis; primary sclerosing cholangitis; Wilson disease; α-1-antitrypsin deficiency; granulomatous disease (e.g., sarcoidosis); drug-induced liver disease (e.g., methotrexate, α-methyldopa, amiodarone); venous outflow obstruction (e.g., Budd-Chiari syndrome, veno-occlusive disease); chronic right-sided heart failure; tricuspid regurgitation; and rare genetic, metabolic, and infectious causes
Commonly Associated Conditions
Diabetes, alcoholism, drug abuse, depression, obesity