Impetigo was found in 5-Minute Clinical Consult which helps you diagnose, treat, and follow up on over 900 medical conditions seen in everyday practice.
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- A contagious, superficial, intraepidermal infection occurring prominently on exposed areas of the face and extremities
- Infected patients usually have multiple lesions.
- Cultures are positive in >80% cases for Staphylococcus aureus either alone or combined with group A β-hemolytic streptococci; S. aureus is more common pathogen since 1990s.
- Nonbullous impetigo: Most common form of impetigo. Formation of vesiculopustules that rupture, leading to crusting with a characteristic golden appearance; local lymphadenopathy may occur.
- Bullous impetigo: Staphylococcal impetigo that progresses rapidly to small-to-large flaccid bullae (newborns/young children) caused by epidermolytic toxin release; less lymphadenopathy; trunk more often affected; <30% of patients
- Folliculitis: Considered by some to be S. aureus impetigo of hair follicles
- Ecthyma: A deeper, ulcerated impetigo infection often with lymphadenitis
- System(s) affected: Skin/Exocrine
- Synonym(s): Pyoderma; Impetigo contagiosa; Impetigo vulgaris; Fox impetigo
- Predominant sex: Male = Female
- Predominant age: Children ages 2–5 years
In the US: Not reported, but common
- Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis may follow impetigo (in young children).
- Impetigo neonatorum may occur due to nursery contamination.
- Warm, humid environment
- Tropical or subtropical climate
- Summer or fall season
- Minor trauma, insect bites
- Poor hygiene, poverty, crowding, epidemics, wartime
- Familial spread
- Poor health with anemia and malnutrition
- Complication of pediculosis, scabies, chickenpox, eczema/atopic dermatitis
- Contact dermatitis (Rhus spp.)
- Contact sports
- Children in daycare
- Possibly tobacco exposure
- Carriage of group A Streptococcus and S. aureus
- Close attention to family hygiene, particularly hand washing among children
- Covering of wounds
- Avoidance of crowding and sharing of personal items
- Treatment of atopic dermatitis
- Coagulase-positive staphylococci: Pure culture ~50–90%; more contagious via contact
- β-hemolytic streptococci: Pure culture only ~10% of the time
- Mixed infections of streptococci and staphylococci common; data suggest increasing importance of staphylococci over past 20 years (1)
- Direct contact or insect vector
- Can result from contamination at trauma site
- Regional lymphadenopathy
Commonly Associated Conditions
- Malnutrition and anemia
- Crowded living conditions
- Poor hygiene
- Neglected minor trauma
- Any chronic/underlying dermatitis