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- Testicular cancer accounts for 1% of all cancers in men; it is the most common solid malignancy in men aged 15–34 years (1).
- An estimated 8,590 new cases will be diagnosed and an estimated 360 deaths will occur in the US in 2012 (2).
- Treatment produces an overall 5-year survival of 96%; for African American patients this 5-year survival rate is alarmingly lower at 86% (2).
- Cryptorchidism is the most firmly established risk factor: Relative risk of testicular cancer in all patients with cryptorchidism is 3–8, with a lower relative risk of 2–3 in those undergoing orchiopexy by age 12; in patients with unilateral cryptorchidism, the relative risk of testicular cancer in the contralateral normally descended testis is negligible (3).
- Personal history of testicular cancer
- Positive family history for testicular cancer
- Testicular dysgenesis
- Klinefelter syndrome
- Caucasian race
- HIV infections
No evidence that screening for testicular cancer is effective (4).
95% of all malignant tumors arising in the testes are germ cell tumors (GCTs), which are subclassified as:
- Seminomatous GCTs: Most common type overall
- Nonseminomatous GCTs (NSGCTs): These include embryonal cell carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, yolk sac tumor, teratomas, or often multiple cell types; these are more clinically aggressive tumors.