Thyroglossal Duct Cyst
Thyroglossal Duct Cyst was found in 5-Minute Clinical Consult which helps you diagnose, treat, and follow up on over 900 medical conditions seen in everyday practice.
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Cyst composed of epithelial remnants of the thyroglossal tract
- Usually midline neck mass at the level of the thyrohyoid membrane, closely associated with the hyoid bone
- Within 2 cm of the midline
- Single, smooth, nontender, and mobile
- 65% infrahyoid type
- 20% suprahyoid
- 15% juxtahyoid
- 10% suprasternal
- Intralaryngeal very rare: Suprasternal notch, superior mediastinum
- Endolaryngeal cyst (ectopic location): Extremely rare
- System(s) affected: Endocrine; Metabolic; Skin; Exocrine
- Most common form of congenital cyst in the neck
- Accounts for 2–4% of all neck masses
- Most patients are children/adolescents.
- Up to 1/3 are aged ≥20 years.
- Predominant age: 50% <10 years, 65% <20 years
- Predominant sex: Male = Female
- Caucasian race
- Thyroglossal duct cysts were found in 7% of adults in 1 autopsy study.
- Thyroglossal duct anomalies are the 2nd most common pediatric neck mass, behind adenopathy in frequency.
- Cystic expansion of a remnant of the thyroglossal duct tract
- Persistence of the epithelial tract, the thyroglossal duct, during the descent of the thyroid from the foramen cecum to its final position in the anterior neck
- The thyroglossal duct tract usually atrophies and disappears by the 8th–10th week of gestation.
- Portions of the tract and remnants of thyroid tissue associated with it may persist at any point between the tongue and the thyroid.
- The wall of a thyroglossal duct is the 2nd most common site for ectopic thyroid tissue.
- Failure of the thyroglossal duct to atrophy and involute after descent of the thyroid in the 4th–7th week of gestation
- Hypothesis: Lymphoid tissue associated with the tract hypertrophies at the time of a regional infection, thereby occluding the tract with resulting cyst formation.
Commonly Associated Conditions
- Often the patient has a history of a recent upper respiratory tract infection.
- Ectopic thyroid tissue is found in 50% of patients.
- If thyroid gland fails to descend to orthotopic site, an ectopic thyroid gland results. Most ectopic thyroid glands are lingual. Many patients with ectopic thyroid gland are hypothyroid.