Tracheitis, Bacterial was found in 5-Minute Clinical Consult which helps you diagnose, treat, and follow up on over 900 medical conditions seen in everyday practice.
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- Acute, potentially life-threatening infraglottic bacterial infection following a primary viral infection, usually parainfluenzae or influenza viruses:
- Direct laryngoscopy reveals marked subglottic edema and thick mucopurulent secretions, sometimes causing pseudomembranes.
- System(s) affected: Pulmonary
- Synonym(s): Laryngotracheobronchitis; Pseudomembranous croup; Bacterial croup
- Estimated annual incidence: 0.1/100,000 (1)
- 1st cases described prior to 1950; resurgence of cases has been noted since 1979
- Peak incidence in children: Fall and winter
- Predominant age: 6 months to 8 years; mean age 4 years (similar to croup)
- Infections in adolescents and adults have been reported.
- Predominant sex: Male > Female (2:1)
- Accounts for 5–14% of upper-airway obstruction in children requiring critical-care services
- Rare illness
- Most common potentially life-threatening upper airway infection in children
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSRA) may contribute to changing epidemiology and virulence (1).
- Periods of increased seasonal activity of respiratory viruses
- Reports following adenoidectomy, with chronic tracheal aspiration, with evidence of other concurrent infections, including sinusitis, otitis, pneumonia, or pharyngitis
No known genetic predisposition
- Standard precautions, with scrupulous attention to handwashing, especially when caring for tracheostomy patients
- Vaccination against viruses that may predispose to bacterial tracheitis
- S. aureus (most common pediatric cause): Consider MRSA (2)
- Haemophilus influenzae type B
- Streptococcus pyogenes group A
- Streptococcus pneumoniae
- Moraxella catarrhalis (associated with higher intubation rate; more frequent in younger children)
- Often polymicrobial
Commonly Associated Conditions
- Consider anatomic abnormalities or foreign body as well as recent pharyngeal or laryngeal surgery.
- Predisposing: Down syndrome, immunodeficiency, subglottic hemangioma, tracheoesophageal fistula repair, tracheobronchomalacia
- Viral coinfection may occur