Urine osmolality >400 mosm/kg (renal water-conserving ability is functioning)
- Excessive sweating, burns
- Insensible respiratory tract losses
- Diarrhea, vomiting, nasogastric suctioning, osmotic cathartics, eg, lactulose
- Osmotic diuresis, eg, hyperglycemia, mannitol, urea
- Postobstructive diuresis
- Diuretic phase of acute tubular necrosis (ATN)
- Salt intoxication (rare)
- Hypertonic intravenous fluids, tube feeds, enemas
- Primary hyperaldosteronism (hypernatremia usually mild and asymptomatic)
- Central diabetes insipidus: idiopathic, head trauma, CNS mass
- Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: lithium, demeclocycline, prolonged urinary tract infection , interstitial nephritis, hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, congenital
Hypernatremia has been found in Diagnosaurus 2.0
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