MEDLINE Journals

    Hearing impairment: a population study of age at diagnosis, severity, and language outcomes at 7-8 years.

    Wake M, Poulakis Z, Hughes EK, et al. 
    Arch Dis Child 2005 Mar; 90(3) :238-44.

    Better language outcomes are reported for preschool children with hearing impairment (HI) diagnosed very early, irrespective of severity. However, population studies of older children are required to substantiate longer term benefits of early detection.To study impact of age of diagnosis and severity of HI in a population cohort of 7-8 year old children.Eighty eight 7-8 year old children born in Victoria, who were (a) fitted with hearing aids for congenital HI by 4.5 years and (b) did not have intellectual or major physical disability were studied. Main outcome measures were Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Predictors were pure tone average (0.5, 1, 2 kHz) in better ear at diagnosis and age at diagnosis. Marginal (adjusted) means were estimated with general linear models.Response rate was 67% (n = 89; 53 boys). Mean age at diagnosis was 21.6 months (SD 14.4); 21% had mild, 34% moderate, 21% severe, and 24% profound HI; mean non-verbal IQ was 104.6 (SD 16.7). Mean total CELF score was 76.7 (SD 21.4) and mean PPVT score 78.1 (SD 18.1). Age of diagnosis, adjusted for severity and IQ, did not contribute to language scores. In contrast, adjusted mean CELF and PPVT language scores fell sequentially with increasing severity of HI.More severe HI, but not later diagnosis, was strongly related to poorer language outcomes at 7-8 years. Further systematic study is needed to understand why children with hearing impairment have good or poor outcomes.

    Age of Onset
    Analysis of Variance
    Cohort Studies
    Health Status
    Hearing Disorders
    Language Disorders
    Regression Analysis


    Pub Type(s)
    Journal Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    PubMed ID


    Content Manager
    Related Content

    Acceptability, benefit and costs of early screening for hearing disability: a study of potential screening tests and models.

    Outcomes of children with mild-profound congenital hearing loss at 7 to 8 years: a population study.

    A randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of direct versus indirect and individual versus group modes of speech and language therapy for children with primary language impairment.

    Speech and language development in a population of Swedish hearing-impaired pre-school children, a cross-sectional study.

    Can a 'single hit' cause limitations in language development? A comparative study of Swedish children with hearing impairment and children with specific language impairment.

    Early hearing detection and intervention in children with prelingual deafness, effects on language development.

    Six year effectiveness of a population based two tier infant hearing screening programme.

    A methodological contribution to the assessment of nonword repetition-a comparison between children with specific language impairment and hearing-impaired children with hearing aids or cochlear implants.