Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for acute rhinosinusitis in adults: background.
The following principles of appropriate antibiotic use for adults with acute rhinosinusitis apply to the diagnosis and treatment of acute maxillary and ethmoid rhinosinusitis in adults who are not immunocompromised.1. Most cases of acute rhinosinusitis diagnosed in ambulatory care are caused by uncomplicated viral upper respiratory tract infections. 2. Bacterial and viral rhinosinusitis are difficult to differentiate on clinical grounds. The clinical diagnosis of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis should be reserved for patients with rhinosinusitis symptoms lasting 7 days or more who have maxillary pain or tenderness in the face or teeth (especially when unilateral) and purulent nasal secretions. Patients with rhinosinusitis symptoms that last less than 7 days are unlikely to have bacterial infection, although rarely some patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis present with dramatic symptoms of severe unilateral maxillary pain, swelling, and fever.3. Sinus radiography is not recommended for diagnosis in routine cases. 4. Acute rhinosinusitis resolves without antibiotic treatment in most cases. Symptomatic treatment and reassurance is the preferred initial management strategy for patients with mild symptoms. Antibiotic therapy should be reserved for patients with moderately severe symptoms who meet the criteria for the clinical diagnosis of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and for those with severe rhinosinusitis symptoms-especially those with unilateral facial pain-regardless of duration of illness. For initial treatment, the most narrow-spectrum agent active against the likely pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, should be used.
Hickner JM, Bartlett JG, Besser RE, Gonzales R, Hoffman JR, Sande MA, American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Mediciine, Centers for Disease Control, Infectious Diseases Society of America
B111 Clinical Center, Michigan State University Department of Family Practice, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.
SourceAnnals of internal medicine 134:6 2001 Mar 20 pg 498-505
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.