Load transfer across the scapula during humeral abduction.
Stress analysis in the individual parts of the scapula under normal physiological conditions is necessary to understand the load transfer mechanism, its relation with morphology of bone and to analyse the deviations in stress patterns due to implantation of the glenoid. The purpose of this study was to obtain stress distribution in the scapula during abduction of the arm and to obtain a qualitative estimate of the function of coracoacromial ligament. An accurate three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of the natural scapula has been developed for this purpose, using computed tomography data and shell-solid modelling approach. The model was experimentally validated. A musculoskeletal shoulder model of forces that calculates all muscle, ligament and joint reaction forces, in six load cases (30-180 degrees) during unloaded humeral abduction was used as applied loading conditions for the 3D FE model. High tensile and compressive stresses (15-60 MPa) were generated in the thick bony ridges of the scapula, like the scapular spine, lateral border, glenoid and acromion. High compressive stresses (45-58 MPa) were evoked in the glenoid and at the connection of glenoid-scapular spine-infraspinous fossa. The stresses in the infraspinous fossa and supraspinous fossa were low (0.05-15 MPa). These results indicated that the transfer of major muscle and joint reaction take place predominantly through the thick bony ridges, whereas the fossa area act more as attachment sites of large muscles. During humeral abduction, coracoacromial ligament was stretched, and presumably will be under tension.
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Faculty of Design, Engineering and Production, Man-Machine Systems Group, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft. The Netherlands. email@example.com
SourceJournal of biomechanics 37:7 2004 Jul pg 1001-9
Pub Type(s)Journal Article