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Smoking, alcohol consumption, and Raynaud's phenomenon in middle age.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Data suggest Raynaud's phenomenon shares risk factors with cardiovascular disease. Studies of smoking, alcohol consumption, and Raynaud's have produced conflicting results and were limited by small sample size and failure to adjust for confounders. Our objective was to determine whether smoking and alcohol are independently associated with Raynaud's in a large, community-based cohort.
METHODS
By using a validated survey to classify Raynaud's in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort, we performed sex-specific analyses of Raynaud's status by smoking and alcohol consumption in 1840 women and 1602 men. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of Raynaud's to smoking and alcohol consumption.
RESULTS
Current smoking was not associated with Raynaud's in women but was associated with increased risk in men (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.59, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-6.04). Heavy alcohol consumption in women was associated with increased risk of Raynaud's (adjusted OR 1.69, 95% CI, 1.02-2.82), whereas moderate alcohol consumption in men was associated with reduced risk (adjusted OR 0.51, 95% CI, 0.29-0.89). In both genders, red wine consumption was associated with a reduced risk of Raynaud's (adjusted OR 0.59, 95% CI, 0.36-0.96 in women and adjusted OR 0.30, 95% CI, 0.15-0.62 in men).
CONCLUSIONS
Our data suggest that middle-aged women and men may have distinct physiologic mechanisms underlying their Raynaud's, and thus sex-specific therapeutic approaches may be appropriate. Our data also support the possibility that moderate red wine consumption may protect against Raynaud's.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors

    Suter LG, Murabito JM, Felson DT, Fraenkel L

    Source

    The American journal of medicine 120:3 2007 Mar pg 264-71

    MeSH

    Age Factors
    Alcohol Drinking
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Cohort Studies
    Female
    Follow-Up Studies
    Health Surveys
    Humans
    Incidence
    Logistic Models
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Multivariate Analysis
    Raynaud Disease
    Severity of Illness Index
    Sex Factors
    Smoking
    United States

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    17349450