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Familial pituitary tumor syndromes.
The vast majority of pituitary tumors are benign and occur sporadically; however, they can still result in significant morbidity and even premature mortality through mass effects and hormone dysfunction. The etiology of sporadic tumors is still poorly understood; by contrast, advances have been made in our understanding of familial pituitary adenoma syndromes in the past decade. Currently, four genes are known to be associated with familial pituitary tumor syndromes: MEN1, CDKN1B, PRKAR1A and AIP. The first three genes are associated with a variety of extrapituitary pathologies, for example, primary hyperparathyroidism with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, which might aid identification of these syndromes. By contrast, AIP mutations seem to occur in the setting of isolated familial pituitary adenomas, particularly of the growth-hormone-secreting subtype. Awareness and identification of familial pituitary tumor syndromes is important because of potential associated pathologies and important implications for family members. Here, we review the current knowledge of familial pituitary tumor syndromes.
MeSHCyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia
Pub Type(s)Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't