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A paediatric bone index derived by automated radiogrammetry.

Abstract

SUMMARY
Hand radiographs are obtained routinely to determine bone age of children. This paper presents a method that determines a Paediatric Bone Index automatically from such radiographs. The Paediatric Bone Index is designed to have minimal relative standard deviation (7.5%), and the precision is determined to be 1.42%.
INTRODUCTION
We present a computerised method to determine bone mass of children based on hand radiographs, including a reference database for normal Caucasian children.
METHODS
Normal Danish subjects (1,867), of ages 7-17, and 531 normal Dutch subjects of ages 5-19 were included. Historically, three different indices of bone mass have been used in radiogrammetry all based on A = piTW(1 - T/W), where T is the cortical thickness and W the bone width. The indices are the metacarpal index A/W(2), DXR-BMD = A/W, and Exton-Smith's index A/(WL), where L is the length of the bone. These indices are compared with new indices of the form A/(W(a) L(b)), and it is argued that the preferred index has minimal SD relative to the mean value at each bone age and sex. Finally, longitudinal series of X-rays of 20 Japanese children are used to derive the precision of the measurements.
RESULTS
The preferred index is A/(W(1.33) L(0.33)), which is named the Paediatric Bone Index, PBI. It has mean relative SD 7.5% and precision 1.42%.
CONCLUSIONS
As part of the BoneXpert method for automated bone age determination, our method facilitates retrospective research studies involving validation of the proposed index against fracture incidence and adult bone mineral density.

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  • Authors

    Thodberg HH, van Rijn RR, Tanaka T, Martin DD, Kreiborg S

    Source

    Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA 21:8 2010 Aug pg 1391-400

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Age Determination by Skeleton
    Aging
    Algorithms
    Bone Density
    Child
    Child, Preschool
    Databases, Factual
    Female
    Hand Bones
    Humans
    Male
    Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
    Reference Values
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    19937229