HIV infection and periodontal diseases: an overview of the post-HAART era.
HIV infection remains a global health problem of unprecedented dimensions, although the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly modified the course of HIV disease into a manageable chronic disease with longer survival and improved quality of life in HIV-infected subjects. Among the HIV-associated infections, oral lesions have been recognized as prominent features since the beginning of the epidemic and continue to be important. Periodontal diseases strongly associated with HIV infection are classified as linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and are included among the cardinal oral lesions. Although oral candidiasis appears to be the infection more significantly decreased after the introduction of HAART, the current literature suggests that the prevalence and course of periodontal lesions have also been modified. Higher prevalence of opportunistic microorganisms has been frequently detected in the subgingival flora of HIV-infected individuals, probably due to the immune status of those patients, as colonization and overgrowth of atypical pathogenic species is facilitated by immunosuppression. Additional research is required regarding biological issues such as the role of oral immune factors and periodontal disease in the persistency of HIV infection, the possibility of oral transmission and the re-emerging of HIV infection.
Department of Microbiology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
SourceOral diseases 17:1 2011 Jan pg 13-25
MeSHAntiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
Pub Type(s)Journal Article