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A comprehensive approach to the prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
The current bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is seen in infants born extremely premature, with less severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and who received prenatal steroids-"new BPD". The pathophysiology of BPD is based on an impairment of lung maturation with prenatal and postnatal multi-hit insults and genetic susceptibility. This multifactorial pathophysiology of BPD suggests that no single "magic bullet" will prevent it. Thus, to avoid BPD we need to implement a complex and comprehensive strategy. This strategy is based on ventilatory and non-ventilatory measures. The ventilatory route allows an individualized endotracheal intubation approach. Early lung recruitment with nasal respiratory support (nasal continuous positive airway pressure [NCPAP] or nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation [NIPPV] / synchronized NIPPV [SNIPPV]) and the INSURE (intubation, surfactant and early extubation) approach are discussed. Initial treatment with NCPAP did not reduce the rate of BPD compared to endotracheal ventilation and surfactant administration. While NIPPV/SNIPPV may have short-term advantages over NCPAP, the effect on BPD needs to be further studied. During hospitalization the respiratory goals should aim for adequate oxygenation, permissive hypercapnia, and gentle ventilation. However, these goals were found to have short-term benefits but did not reduce significantly the rate of BPD. Selective use of a short course of low dose corticosteroids can be considered after the first or second week of life in infants who are unable to be weaned from the ventilator and are at high risk for BPD. Non-ventilatory measures include early nutritional support with fluid restriction, caffeine and consideration of vitamin A. Hemodynamic significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) may be associated with BPD, but medical or surgical treatment of PDA were not shown to decrease BPD. Each component and the strategy as a whole needs to be further studied in large randomized prospective studies or by meta-analyses, especially in the target population of extremely premature infants who are the most prone to BPD.
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn
Pub Type(s)Journal Article