Esophageal and vertebral artery injuries during complex cervical spine surgery--avoidance and management.
Vertebral artery and esophageal injuries are rare but feared complications of cervical spine surgery. Appropriate understanding of treatment algorithms for prompt intervention in the event of a vertebral artery injury minimizes the risk of exsanguination and/or profound neurologic consequences. Esophageal injuries are often more subtle, and although intraoperative injuries can sometimes be diagnosed at the time of surgery, they frequently do not present until the week after surgery. They can additionally be seen as a late complication of instrumentation usage and/or failure. Expedient diagnosis and management of these injuries minimize their impact and allow for optimal treatment outcome.
Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Two Medical Park, Suite 404, Columbia, SC 29203, USA. email@example.com
SourceThe Orthopedic clinics of North America 43:1 2012 Jan pg 63-74, viii
Combined Modality Therapy
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Vascular System Injuries
Pub Type(s)Journal Article