Clinical, epidemiological and outcome features of patients with cryptococcosis in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Nearly one million of cryptococcosis cases occur yearly around the world, involving mainly HIV-infected patients who are not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) or present poor adherence. This study aims to evaluate epidemiological, clinical and outcome aspects of patients with cryptococcosis from 1998-2010. Patients were prospectively recruited, and their medical and laboratory records were reviewed. A total of 131 cases were included, and of these, 119 (90.83%) had AIDS, 4 received a renal transplant, 2 presented systemic lupus erythematosus and 6 (4.6%) were apparently immunocompetent. Ninety-one (69.46%) were men, and the median age was 38.7 years. Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) was diagnosed in 103 (78.62%), whereas 28 (21.38%) had cryptococcal infection in other sites. Of patients with CM, 94 (91.26%) had AIDS being cryptococcosis the first defining illness in 61 (64.9%), while 37 (60.65%) of them presented simultaneously both diagnosis. Headache, altered mental status, papilledema and seizures at admission were significatively associated with a poor outcome. Of 163 different isolates, 155 (95.09%) were Cryptococcus neoformans and eight (4.88%) Cryptococcus gattii. Antifungal therapy was warranted in 8 (87.4%) patients with CM, but 46 (51.1%) died during the first days or weeks. Of 28 patients without CM, 21 (75%) received treatment, but 6 (28.6%) died. The poor outcome among this case series was similar to that reported from other developing countries, but it is paradoxal in Brazil where the ART is at free disposal in the public health services. Despite, at least 60-70% of patients present advanced immunosuppression when they receive the AIDS diagnosis.
Infectious Diseases Department, Triângulo Mineiro Federal University, Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
SourceMycopathologia 173:5-6 2012 Jun pg 321-7
Pub Type(s)Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't