Clinical evaluation of detomidine-butorphanol-guaifenesin-ketamine as short term TIVA in Spiti ponies.
Veterinarians working under remote field conditions are routinely presented with variety of surgical interventions in equines like castrations, management of wound, traumatic and congenital hernias and musculoskeletal disorders thus necessitating the use of general anaesthesia for management of these conditions. The present study was carried out to evaluate and recommend the suitable short term anaesthetic technique for Spiti ponies under field conditions. Seven clinically healthy male Spiti ponies presented for castration were evaluated for short term Total Intravenous Anaesthesia (TIVA) using detomidine (0.02 mg kg(-1)), butorphanol (0.01 mg kg(-1)), 5% guaifenesin (20 mg kg(-1)) and ketamine (2.0 mg kg(-1)). The studies conducted were open label trials and all the animals received same treatment. After proper tetanus prophylaxis and preanesthetic fasting, detomidine was administered intravenously. Subsequently at head down position the animals received butorphanol intravenously. Thereafter, guaifenesin was administered intravenously. As soon as the signs of ataxia developed, the induction of surgical anaesthesia was achieved by intravenous administration of ketamine hydrochloride. The onset of sedation was observed in 2.43 +/- 0.53 min following detomidine administration and the animals were ataxic in 1.43 +/- 0.43 min after butorphanol and guaifenesin administration when ketamine was injected. The ponies were in surgical plane of anaesthesia within 2.28 +/- 0.42 min following ketamine administration. During recovery the limb/head movement and sternal recumbency were attained in 18.71 +/- 1.98 and 26.14 +/- 1.62 min, respectively whereas standing ataxia and normal gait were seen at 29.42 +/- 3.21 and 71.14 +/- 4.74 min, respectively. There was excellent to good muscle relaxation. The surgical anaesthesia remained for 22.57 +/- 1.48 min. The recovery was smooth. Moderate to good suppression of palpebral and corneal reflexes were observed immediately after induction and during anaesthesia. The analgesia was excellent. A highly significant (p < 0.01) to significant (p < 0.05) decrease in respiration rate was observed after induction, during anaesthesia and after recovery. The mean SpO2 value in equines of this group was 76.50 +/- 4.14 and 83.33 +/- 4.18% after induction and during anaesthesia, respectively. Some of the blood biochemical parameters like plasma alanine amino transferase (ALT), total proteins and glucose showed significant increase without clinical consequence. It was concluded that detomidine (0.02 mg kg(-1)), butorphanol (0.01 mg kg(-1)), guaifenesin 5% (20 mg kg(-1)) and ketamine (2.0 mg kg(-1)) combination can safely be used for short term total intravenous anaesthesia in equines under field conditions where the monitoring facilities are meager.
Department of Surgery and Radiology, DGCN College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, CSK Himachal Pradesh Agriculture University, Palampur (HP) 176 062, India.
SourcePakistan journal of biological sciences: PJBS 14:11 2011 Jun 1 pg 647-52
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Pub Type(s)Journal Article