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Necrotizing periodontal diseases in HIV-infected Brazilian patients: a clinical and microbiologic descriptive study.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE
Nowadays, necrotizing periodontal diseases have a low prevalence; however, a better understanding of the etiopathogenesis of these diseases is necessary for determining more adequate preventive and therapeutic strategies.
METHOD AND MATERIALS
From a pool of 1,232 HIV-infected patients, 15 presented with necrotizing periodontal diseases, which were evaluated by full-mouth periodontal clinical measurements. Subgingival biofilm samples were collected from necrotizing lesions of six of these individuals. The presence and levels of 47 bacterial species were determined by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization.
RESULTS
All 15 patients (10 had severe immunodeficiency) had been infected sexually. Thirteen patients were taking antiretroviral medication (66.7% undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy). Regarding necrotizing periodontal diseases, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (60%) was more prevalent than necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis (40%). The frequency of supragingival biofilm and bleeding on probing ranged from 11.5% to 59.2% and 3.0% to 54.0%, respectively, whereas the mean probing depth and clinical attachment level were between 1.48 and 2.61 mm and 1.30 and 2.62 mm, respectively. Species detected in high prevalence and/or counts in necrotizing lesions included Treponema denticola, Eikenella corrodens, Dialister pneumosintes, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus intermedius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Campylobacter rectus. In contrast, Parvimonas micra, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eubacterium nodatum, and Helicobacter pylori were observed in the lowest mean prevalence and/or counts.
CONCLUSION
Necrotizing periodontal disease lesions in HIV-infected patients present a microbiota with high prevalence and/or counts of classical periodontal pathogens, in particular T denticola, as well as species not commonly considered as periodontal pathogens, such as E faecalis and D pneumosintes. In addition, these individuals with necrotizing periodontal disease frequently display severe immunodeficiency and AIDS-defining diseases such as tuberculosis.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors

    Ramos MP, Ferreira SM, Silva-Boghossian CM, Souto R, Colombo AP, Noce CW, Gonçalves LS

    Source

    Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany : 1985) 43:1 2012 Jan pg 71-82

    MeSH

    Adult
    Anti-HIV Agents
    Biofilms
    Colony Count, Microbial
    Dental Plaque
    Female
    Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative
    HIV Infections
    Humans
    Immunocompromised Host
    Male
    Molecular Typing
    Periodontal Index
    Periodontitis
    Viral Load
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22259811