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Severe malaria in children: factors predictive of outcome and response to Quinine.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE
To identify clinical features of severe malaria and their association with adverse outcomes according to recently proposed WHO guidelines and observe treatment failure to Quinine.
METHODS
This descriptive study was performed at Civil Hospital Karachi from September 2007 to January 2008. Various clinical features and laboratory parameters were analyzed according to t WHO guidelines and treatment failure to anti-malarial drugs was recorded. Mean, frequencies, percentages and chi-square test were used for analysis. Statistical significance was defined as p-value < 0.05.
RESULTS
Total of 81 patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age of children was 5.5 +/- 3.4 years. Type of malaria infections that were seen included falciparum 46 (57%), mixed infection 26 (32%) and vivax 9 (11%). Frequent clinical features included splenomegaly (74%), multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) (70%), cerebral malaria (31%) and malnutrition (27%). Thrombocytopenia (86%) and severe anaemia (42%) were the common laboratory findings. Shock (p < 0.001), renal failure (p < 0.001), hepatic involvement (p < 0.002) and cerebral malaria (p < 0.002) emerged as strong predictors of complications. Fourteen out of 81 cases showed early treatment failure to Quinine.
CONCLUSION
Shock, renal failure, hepatic involvement and cerebral malaria are strongly associated with complications in severe malaria. MOD and malnutrition were identified as significant new clinical features present in severe malaria in this study.

Authors

Ahmed S, Adil F, Shahzad T, Yahiya Y

Source

JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 61:1 2011 Jan pg 54-8

MeSH

Adolescent
Antimalarials
Child
Child, Preschool
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Epidemics
Female
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Infant
Malaria
Male
Malnutrition
Microscopy
Multiple Organ Failure
Pakistan
Parasitemia
Plasmodium
Predictive Value of Tests
Quinine
Risk Factors
Severity of Illness Index
Treatment Failure
World Health Organization

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22368904