Perspective: Guidelines for reporting team-based learning activities in the medical and health sciences education literature.


Medical and health sciences educators are increasingly employing team-based learning (TBL) in their teaching activities. TBL is a comprehensive strategy for developing and using self-managed learning teams that has created a fertile area for medical education scholarship. However, because this method can be implemented in a variety of ways, published reports about TBL may be difficult to understand, critique, replicate, or compare unless authors fully describe their interventions.The authors of this article offer a conceptual model and propose a set of guidelines for standardizing the way that the results of TBL implementations are reported and critiqued. They identify and articulate the seven core design elements that underlie the TBL method and relate them to educational principles that maximize student engagement and learning within teams. The guidelines underscore important principles relevant to many forms of small-group learning. The authors suggest that following these guidelines when writing articles about TBL implementations should help standardize descriptive information in the medical and health sciences education literature about the essential aspects of TBL activities and allow authors and reviewers to successfully replicate TBL implementations and draw meaningful conclusions about observed outcomes.


  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors

    Haidet P

    Levine RE

    Parmelee DX

    Crow S

    Kennedy F

    Kelly PA

    Perkowski L

    Michaelsen L

    Richards BF


    Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 87:3 2012 Mar pg 292-9


    Education, Medical, Undergraduate
    Group Processes
    Health Education
    Models, Educational
    Programmed Instruction as Topic
    Research Report
    United States

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.



    PubMed ID