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Time-delayed summation as a means of improving resolution on fast rotating computed tomography systems.
Modern computed tomography (CT) systems are supporting increasingly fast rotation speeds, which are a prerequisite for fast dynamic acquisition, e.g. in perfusion imaging, and for new modalities such as dedicated breast CT, where breathhold scanning is indicated. However, not all detector technologies are supporting the high frame rates that are necessary to retain high resolution for objects far away from the isocenter. Even on systems that would support a sufficiently high frame rate, the necessary bandwidth of the data transfer from the rotating gantry stills remains challenging. The authors evaluated a pixel shifting technique termed time-delayed summation (TDS) as a method of increasing resolution on fast rotating CT systems without the need to increase the frame rate.
In TDS mode, detector pixel values are shifted along rows during image acquisition to compensate for detector motion. In order to fully exploit TDS, focal spot position control (FSC) was used in combination with TDS. FSC applies a counter movement to the x-ray focal spot during image acquisition such that it is kept fixed in space. As a proof of concept, measurements were performed on a prototype photon counting detector capable of TDS. The detector was mounted on a movable table and a gold wire phantom was imaged with different TDS settings and detector velocities. Additionally, simulations of a broad range of TDS and FSC settings on two different modalities, a clinical CT scanner and a breast CT scanner, and two different detector geometries, flat and cylindrical, were performed to assess the gain in resolution and contrast in cylindrical water phantoms containing a small wire at distances from the phantom center varied from 5% to 90% of the phantom radius. As figures of merit, the modulation transfer function (MTF) at 10% and the maximum contrast were used and compared against the respective values when using step-and-shoot acquisition, which means stopping the rotation when a projection image is acquired.
Measurements showed that detector movement and the resulting blurring of the wire projections were compensated to the expected degree when using the appropriate number of TDS shifts per frame (TDS factor). Using simulations it was found that when using the optimal TDS factor, over 90% of the resolution achieved in step-and-shot mode was reached for all investigated wire positions. TDS showed better performance on a cylindrical detector that on the same system with a flat detector. TDS factors that were deviating from the optimum by more than 1 shift led to a performance below that of standard continuous acquisition.
The findings of this study encourage the combined usage of TDS and FSC in systems that require fast rotation. The integration of TDS in state-of-the-art x-ray detectors is feasible.
Radiographic Image Enhancement
Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and Specificity
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Pub Type(s)Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't