Efficacy and pitfalls of transapical cannulation for the repair of acute type A aortic dissection.
Selection of a cannulation site for the repair of acute type A aortic dissection remains controversial. Several cannulation sites have been introduced, but each is associated with a risk of adverse complications. Transapical cannulation is a simple procedure to restore antegrade blood flow during ECC. However the efficacy of this procedure is unknown.
Among 400 patients undergoing surgical repair of acute type A dissection at Sakakibara Heart Institute between 2003 and 2010, transapical cannulation was performed in 52 patients, and these patients were included in this study. Transapical cannulation was selected as the initial cannulation site in 44 patients and as conversion from femoral cannulation in 8 patients.
There were 4 in-hospital mortalities (mortality rate, 7.7%) and 5 patients had strokes (stroke rate, 9.6%). Transapical cannulation was successful in 47 patients (90.4%). Conversion of the cannulation site was necessary in 5 patients: Malperfusion on initiation of ECC was observed in 4 patients and emergence of aortic regurgitation was observed in 1 patient. The cannula was moved to another artery for correction in these patients. There was no mortality in patients undergoing conversion of the cannulation site.
Transapical cannulation is considered an effective option for the repair of acute type A aortic dissection. Transapical cannulation cannot eliminate the risk of intraoperative malperfusion, and therefore careful assessment with intraoperative monitoring is necessary.
SourceThe Annals of thoracic surgery 93:6 2012 Jun pg 1905-9
Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic
Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation
Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive
Pub Type(s)Journal Article