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Low blood concentration of hydroxychloroquine in patients with refractory cutaneous lupus erythematosus: a French multicenter prospective study.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE
To study the relation between blood concentration of hydroxychloroquine and the clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine sulfate in a series of patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE).
DESIGN
Prospective multicenter study. A staff dermatologist blinded to blood hydroxychloroquine concentrations performed a standardized review of medical records and assessment of hydroxychloroquine efficacy in the following 3 categories: complete remission, partial remission (clearing of >50% of skin lesions), or treatment failure. Whole-blood samples were collected for measurement of blood hydroxychloroquine concentration.
SETTING
Fourteen French university hospitals.
PATIENTS
Three hundred consecutive patients with subacute or chronic CLE who had been treated with hydroxychloroquine for at least 3 months.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
The statistical significance of correlation between blood hydroxychloroquine concentration and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine and the statistical associations in univariate and multivariate analyses of complete remission with several variables.
RESULTS
The study included 300 patients with discoid lupus erythematosus (n = 160), subacute CLE (n = 86), lupus erythematosus tumidus (n = 52), chilblain lupus (n = 26), and lupus panniculitis (n = 16); 38 of these patients had 2 or more associated forms. Median blood hydroxychloroquine concentration was significantly higher in patients with complete remission (910 [range, <50 to 3057] ng/mL) compared with partial remission (692 [<50 to 2843] ng/mL) and treatment failure (569 [<50 to 2242] ng/mL) (P = .007). In the multivariate analysis, complete remission was associated with higher blood hydroxychloroquine concentrations (P = .005) and the absence of discoid lesions (P = .004). Thirty patients (10.0%) had very low blood hydroxychloroquine concentrations (<200 ng/mL) and may be considered nonadherent to the treatment regimen.
CONCLUSION
Monitoring hydroxychloroquine blood concentrations might improve the management of refractory CLE.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors

    Francès C, Cosnes A, Duhaut P, Zahr N, Soutou B, Ingen-Housz-Oro S, Bessis D, Chevrant-Breton J, Cordel N, Lipsker D, Costedoat-Chalumeau N

    Source

    Archives of dermatology 148:4 2012 Apr pg 479-84

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Antimalarials
    Chilblains
    Child
    Female
    France
    Humans
    Hydroxychloroquine
    Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous
    Male
    Medication Adherence
    Middle Aged
    Multivariate Analysis
    Panniculitis, Lupus Erythematosus
    Prospective Studies
    Single-Blind Method
    Statistics, Nonparametric
    Treatment Outcome
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22508872