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Heart rate recovery in pulmonary arterial hypertension: relationship with exercise capacity and prognosis.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Delayed postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR) has been associated with disability and poor prognosis in chronic cardiopulmonary diseases. The usefulness of HRR to predict exercise impairment and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), however, remains largely unexplored.
METHODS
Seventy-two patients with PAH of varied etiology (New York Heart Association classes I-IV) and 21 age- and gender-matched controls underwent a maximal incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), with heart rate being recorded up to the fifth minute of recovery.
RESULTS
Heart rate recovery was consistently lower in the patients compared with the controls (P < .05). The best cutoff for HRR in 1 minute (HRR(1 min)) to discriminate the patients from the controls was 18 beats. Compared with patients with HRR(1 min) ≤ 18 (n = 40), those with HRR(1 min) >18 (n = 32) had better New York Heart Association scores, resting hemodynamics and 6-minute walking distance. In fact, HRR(1 min) >18 was associated with a range of maximal and submaximal CPET variables indicative of less severe exercise impairment (P < .05). The single independent predictor of HRR(1 min) ≤ 18 was the 6-minute walking distance (odds ratio [95% CI] 0.99 [0.98-1.00], P < .05). On a multiple regression analysis that considered only CPET-independent variables, HRR(1 min) ≤ 18 was the single predictor of mortality (hazard ratio [95% CI] 1.19 [1.03-1.37], P < .05).
CONCLUSIONS
Preserved HRR(1 min) (>18 beats) is associated with less impaired responses to incremental exercise in patients with PAH. Conversely, a delayed HRR(1 min) response has negative prognostic implications, a finding likely to be clinically useful when more sophisticated (and costlier) analyses provided by a full CPET are not available.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors

    Ramos RP, Arakaki JS, Barbosa P, Treptow E, Valois FM, Ferreira EV, Nery LE, Neder JA

    Source

    American heart journal 163:4 2012 Apr pg 580-8

    MeSH

    Adult
    Exercise Test
    Exercise Tolerance
    Female
    Heart Rate
    Humans
    Hypertension, Pulmonary
    Kaplan-Meier Estimate
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Prognosis

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22520523