Unbound MEDLINE

Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect.

Abstract

The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either (a) a 4-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, (b) a 4-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, (c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or (d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for 4 weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans.

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  • Authors

    Hopkins ME, Davis FC, Vantieghem MR, Whalen PJ, Bucci DJ

    Institution

    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA.

    Source

    Neuroscience 215: 2012 Jul 26 pg 59-68

    MeSH

    Activities of Daily Living
    Adolescent
    Adult
    Affect
    Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
    Cognition
    Exercise
    Genetic Testing
    Humans
    Methionine
    Mood Disorders
    Neuropsychological Tests
    Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
    Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
    Recognition (Psychology)
    Stress, Psychological
    Valine
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22554780