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Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on the incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular events in nonsleepy patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized controlled trial.

Abstract

CONTEXT
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the first-line treatment for patients with symptomatic obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, its indication for all patients with sleep-disordered breathing, regardless of daytime symptoms, is unclear.
OBJECTIVE
To evaluate the effect of CPAP treatment on the incidence of hypertension or cardiovascular events in a cohort of nonsleepy patients with OSA.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS
Multicenter, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in 14 teaching hospitals in Spain. Between May 2004 and May 2006, 725 consecutive patients were enrolled who had an apnea-hypopnea index of 20 h(-1) or greater and an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of 10 or less (scores range from 0-24, with values <10 suggesting no daytime sleepiness). Exclusion criteria were previous cardiovascular event, physical or psychological incapacity, chronic disease, or drug or alcohol addiction. Follow-up ended in May 2009.
INTERVENTION
Patients were allocated to receive CPAP treatment or no active intervention. All participants received dietary counseling and sleep hygiene advice.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Incidence of either systemic hypertension (taking antihypertensive medication or blood pressure greater than 140/90 mm Hg) or cardiovascular event (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, transient ischemic attack, hospitalization for unstable angina or arrhythmia, heart failure, or cardiovascular death).
RESULTS
Seven hundred twenty-three patients underwent follow-up for a median of 4 (interquartile range, 2.7-4.4) years (1 patient from each group did not receive allocated treatment); 357 in the CPAP group and 366 in the control group were included in the analysis. In the CPAP group there were 68 patients with new hypertension and 28 cardiovascular events (17 unstable angina or arrhythmia, 3 nonfatal stroke, 3 heart failure, 2 nonfatal myocardial infarction, 2 transient ischemic attack, 1 cardiovascular death). In the control group there were 79 patients with new hypertension and 31 cardiovascular events (11 unstable angina or arrhythmia, 8 nonfatal myocardial infarction, 5 transient ischemic attack, 5 heart failure, 2 nonfatal stroke). The hypertension or cardiovascular event incidence density rate was 9.20 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 7.36-11.04) in the CPAP group and 11.02 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 8.96-13.08) in the control group. The incidence density ratio was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.63-1.1; P = .20).
CONCLUSIONS
In patients with OSA without daytime sleepiness, the prescription of CPAP compared with usual care did not result in a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of hypertension or cardiovascular events. However, the study may have had limited power to detect a significant difference.
TRIAL REGISTRATION
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00127348.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors

    Barbé F, Durán-Cantolla J, Sánchez-de-la-Torre M, Martínez-Alonso M, Carmona C, Barceló A, Chiner E, Masa JF, Gonzalez M, Marín JM, Garcia-Rio F, Diaz de Atauri J, Terán J, Mayos M, de la Peña M, Monasterio C, del Campo F, Montserrat JM, Spanish Sleep And Breathing Network

    Source

    JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 307:20 2012 May 23 pg 2161-8

    MeSH

    Adult
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
    Fatigue
    Female
    Humans
    Hypertension
    Incidence
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Severity of Illness Index
    Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
    Treatment Outcome

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22618923