Mitochondria and Oxidative Stress in the Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome.
Mitochondria play a fundamental role in the maintenance of normal structure, function, and survival of tissues. There is considerable evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in association with metabolic diseases including insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, and the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome. The phenomenon of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced ROS release through interactions between cytosolic and mitochondrial oxidative stress contributes to a vicious cycle of enhanced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Activation of the cytosolic and mitochondrial NADPH oxidase system, impairment of the mitochondrial electron transport, activation of p66shc pathway-targeting mitochondria, endoplasmic reticular stress, and activation of the mammalian target of the rapamycin-S6 kinase pathway underlie dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics and promote mitochondrial oxidative stress. These processes are further modulated by acetyltransferases including sirtuin 1 and sirtuin 3, the former regulating nuclear acetylation and the latter regulating mitochondrial acetylation. The regulation of mitochondrial functions by microRNAs forms an additional layer of molecular control of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Alcohol further exacerbates mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by overnutrition and promotes the development of metabolic diseases.
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Mo., USA.
SourceCardiorenal medicine 2:2 2012 May pg 87-109
Pub Type(s)JOURNAL ARTICLE