Size-dependent lattice expansion in nanoparticles: reality or anomaly?
Size-dependent lattice expansion of nanoparticles is observed for many ionic compounds, including metal oxides, while lattice contraction prevails for pure metals. However, the physical origin of this effect, which is of importance for the thermodynamic, chemical and electronic properties of nanoparticles, is discussed controversially. After a survey of the experimental literature, revealing a wide variety of materials with size-dependent lattice expansion, we show that the negative surface stress is the key reason for lattice expansion, while the excess of lattice sums or point defects of various charge states can be excluded as general explanations. Ab initio calculations of surface stresses for various surface structures of metal oxides confirm the model of a surface-induced lattice expansion.
TU Darmstadt, Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Fachgebiet Materialmodellierung, Petersenstr. 32, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. email@example.com
SourceChemphyschem : a European journal of chemical physics and physical chemistry 13:10 2012 Jul 16 pg 2443-54
Pub Type(s)Journal Article