Hyponatremia in a patient with scleroderma renal crisis: a potential role of activated renin-angiotensin system.
Scleroderma renal crisis is an important complication of scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. On the other hand, hyponatremia has never been reported in patients with scleroderma renal crisis.
A 66-year-old man with scleroderma was admitted to our hospital for an evaluation of renal dysfunction and extreme hypertension. The laboratory evaluation revealed remarkably high plasma renin activity in association with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and the anti-RNA polymerase III antibody assessment was positive. The patient was diagnosed with scleroderma renal crisis and was started treatment with enalapril maleate, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. During hospitalization, the patient developed symptomatic hyponatremia three times and each laboratory analysis revealed improperly high levels of antidiuretic hormone without signs of extracellular fluid volume depletion as well as remarkably high plasma renin activities and angiotensin levels. However, hyponatremia has not been demonstrated to occur as a result of combined therapy with candesartan cilexetil, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, and aliskiren fumarate, a direct renin inhibitor. The plasma renin activities and angiotensin levels were normalized and the renal function was maintained after treatment.
To our best knowledge, this is the first documented case of scleroderma renal crisis complicated with hyponatremia. This report also suggests that the activated renin-angiotensin system may play a role in the development of hyponatremia and that hyponatremia should be taken into consideration as a rare but possible complication associated with screloderma renal crisis.
Renal Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Iwata City Hospital, 512-3 Ohkubo, Iwata, Shizuoka 438-8550, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
SourceBMC nephrology 13: 2012 pg 47
Pub Type(s)Case Reports