Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis--genetics and syndromes.
Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is a common condition in neonates that is characterized by an acquired narrowing of the pylorus. The aetiology of isolated IHPS is still largely unknown. Classic genetic studies have demonstrated an increased risk in families of affected infants. Several genetic studies in groups of individuals with isolated IHPS have identified chromosomal regions linked to the condition; however, these associations could usually not be confirmed in subsequent cohorts, suggesting considerable genetic heterogeneity. IHPS is associated with many clinical syndromes that have known causative mutations. Patients with syndromes associated with IHPS can be considered as having an extreme phenotype of IHPS and studying these patients will be instrumental in finding causes of isolated IHPS. Possible pathways in syndromic IHPS include: (neuro)muscular disorders; connective tissue disorders; metabolic disorders; intracellular signalling pathway disturbances; intercellular communication disturbances; ciliopathies; DNA-repair disturbances; transcription regulation disorders; MAPK-pathway disturbances; lymphatic abnormalities; and environmental factors. Future research should focus on linkage analysis and next-generation molecular techniques in well-defined families with multiple affected members. Studies will have an increased chance of success if detailed phenotyping is applied and if knowledge about the various possible causative pathways is used in evaluating results.
Department of Pediatric Gastrointestinal Motility and Nutrition, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9,C2-312, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. email@example.com
SourceNature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology 9:11 2012 Nov pg 646-60
Connective Tissue Diseases
Disease Models, Animal
Pyloric Stenosis, Hypertrophic
Pub Type(s)Journal Article