Risk of cervical precancer and cancer among HIV-infected women with normal cervical cytology and no evidence of oncogenic HPV infection.
US cervical cancer screening guidelines for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected women 30 years or older have recently been revised, increasing the suggested interval between Papanicolaou (Pap) tests from 3 years to 5 years among those with normal cervical cytology (Pap test) results who test negative for oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV). Whether a 3-year or 5-year screening interval could be used in HIV-infected women who are cytologically normal and oncogenic HPV-negative is unknown.
To determine the risk of cervical precancer or cancer defined cytologically (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or greater [HSIL+]) or histologically (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater [CIN-2+]), as 2 separate end points, in HIV-infected women and HIV-uninfected women who at baseline had a normal Pap test result and were negative for oncogenic HPV.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS
Participants included 420 HIV-infected women and 279 HIV-uninfected women with normal cervical cytology at their enrollment in a multi-institutional US cohort of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, between October 1, 2001, and September 30, 2002, with follow-up through April 30, 2011. Semiannual visits at 6 clinical sites included Pap testing and, if indicated, cervical biopsy. Cervicovaginal lavage specimens from enrollment were tested for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction. The primary analysis was truncated at 5 years of follow-up.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE
Five-year cumulative incidence of cervical precancer and cancer.
No oncogenic HPV was detected in 369 (88% [95% CI, 84%-91%]) HIV-infected women and 255 (91% [95% CI, 88%-94%]) HIV-uninfected women with normal cervical cytology at enrollment. Among these oncogenic HPV-negative women, 2 cases of HSIL+ were observed; an HIV-uninfected woman and an HIV-infected woman with a CD4 cell count of 500 cells/μL or greater. Histologic data were obtained from 4 of the 6 clinical sites. There were 6 cases of CIN-2+ in 145 HIV-uninfected women (cumulative incidence, 5% [95% CI, 1%-8%]) and 9 cases in 219 HIV-infected women (cumulative incidence, 5% [95% CI, 2%-8%]). This included 1 case of CIN-2+ in 44 oncogenic HPV-negative HIV-infected women with CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/μL (cumulative incidence, 2% [95% CI, 0%-7%]), 1 case in 47 women with CD4 cell count of 350 to 499 cells/μL (cumulative incidence, 2% [95% CI, 0%-7%]), and 7 cases in 128 women with CD4 cell count of 500 cells/μL or greater (cumulative incidence, 6% [95% CI, 2%-10%]). One HIV-infected and 1 HIV-uninfected woman had CIN-3, but none had cancer.
The 5-year cumulative incidence of HSIL+ and CIN-2+ was similar in HIV-infected women and HIV-uninfected women who were cytologically normal and oncogenic HPV-negative at enrollment.
Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Mazer Bldg, Room 512, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
SourceJAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 308:4 2012 Jul 25 pg 362-9
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia
Early Detection of Cancer
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
Pub Type(s)Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural