Sodium caprate transiently opens claudin-5-containing barriers at tight junctions of epithelial and endothelial cells.
Claudin-5 is a tight junction (TJ) protein which limits the diffusion of small hydrophilic molecules. Thus, it represents a potential pharmacological target to improve drug delivery to the tissues protected by claudin-5-dependent barriers. Sodium caprate is known as an absorption enhancer which opens the paracellular space acting on TJ proteins and actin cytoskeleton. Its action on claudin-5 is not understood so far. Epithelial and endothelial systems were used to evaluate the effect of caprate on claudin-5 in TJ-free cells and on claudin-5 fully integrated in TJ. To this aim, confocal microscopy on live and fixed cells and isolated mouse brain capillaries, Western blotting and permeability assays were employed. Caprate reversibly reduced claudin-5 trans-interactions in TJ-free human embryonic kidney-293 cells expressing claudin-5-YFP. It decreased the membranous claudin-5 and the F-actin content in Madin-Darby canine kidney-II cells expressing Flag-claudin-5, thereby increasing the permeability to the small molecule lucifer yellow. Interestingly, zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1), which links transmembranous TJ proteins to the actin cytoskeleton, was not affected by caprate treatment. Similarly, endogenous claudin-5 in the membrane of brain endothelia was displaced together with F-actin, whereas ZO-1 remained unaffected. Caprate transiently opens the paracellular space, reducing the intercellular claudin-5/claudin-5 interactions and the polymerized actin at the perijunctional region of endothelial and epithelial cells. In conclusion, the study further elucidates the cellular effects of caprate at the tight junctions.
Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, FMP, 13125 Berlin, Germany.
SourceMolecular pharmaceutics 9:9 2012 Sep 4 pg 2523-33
Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Zonula Occludens-1 Protein
Pub Type(s)Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't