GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-(9-39) elevates fasting blood glucose levels in congenital hyperinsulinism owing to inactivating mutations in the ATP-sensitive K+ channel.
Infants with congenital hyperinsulinism owing to inactivating mutations in the K(ATP) channel (K(ATP)HI) who are unresponsive to medical therapy will require pancreatectomy to control the hypoglycemia. In preclinical studies, we showed that the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-(9-39) suppresses insulin secretion and corrects fasting hypoglycemia in SUR-1(-/-) mice. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of exendin-(9-39) on fasting blood glucose in subjects with K(ATP)HI. This was a randomized, open-label, two-period crossover pilot clinical study. Nine subjects with K(ATP)HI received either exendin-(9-39) or vehicle on two different days. The primary outcome was blood glucose; secondary outcomes were insulin, glucagon, and GLP-1. In all subjects, mean nadir blood glucose and glucose area under the curve were significantly increased by exendin-(9-39). Insulin-to-glucose ratios were significantly lower during exendin-(9-39) infusion compared with vehicle. Fasting glucagon and intact GLP-1 were not affected by treatment. In addition, exendin-(9-39) significantly inhibited amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets isolated from neonates with K(ATP)HI. Our findings have two important implications: 1) GLP-1 and its receptor play a role in the regulation of fasting glycemia in K(ATP)HI; and 2) the GLP-1 receptor may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of children with K(ATP)HI.
Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
SourceDiabetes 61:10 2012 Oct pg 2585-91
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Islets of Langerhans
Pub Type(s)Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't