Unbound MEDLINE

Lifting the lid on toilet plume aerosol: a literature review with suggestions for future research.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
The potential risks associated with "toilet plume" aerosols produced by flush toilets is a subject of continuing study. This review examines the evidence regarding toilet plume bioaerosol generation and infectious disease transmission.
METHODS
The peer-reviewed scientific literature was searched to identify articles related to aerosol production during toilet flushing, as well as epidemiologic studies examining the potential role of toilets in infectious disease outbreaks.
RESULTS
The studies demonstrate that potentially infectious aerosols may be produced in substantial quantities during flushing. Aerosolization can continue through multiple flushes to expose subsequent toilet users. Some of the aerosols desiccate to become droplet nuclei and remain adrift in the air currents. However, no studies have yet clearly demonstrated or refuted toilet plume-related disease transmission, and the significance of the risk remains largely uncharacterized.
CONCLUSION
Research suggests that toilet plume could play a contributory role in the transmission of infectious diseases. Additional research in multiple areas is warranted to assess the risks posed by toilet plume, especially within health care facilities.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors

    Johnson DL, Mead KR, Lynch RA, Hirst DV

    Source

    American journal of infection control 41:3 2013 Mar pg 254-8

    MeSH

    Aerosols
    Air Microbiology
    Disease Transmission, Infectious
    Humans
    Risk Assessment
    Toilet Facilities

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23040490