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AAPS PharmSciTech [journal]
- Development and Evaluation of Sustained-Release Etoposide-Loaded Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Implants. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AAPS PharmSciTech 2013 May 11.
Poly(ε-caprolactone) implants containing etoposide, an important chemotherapeutic agent and topoisomerase II inhibitor, were fabricated by a melt method and characterized in terms of content uniformity, morphology, drug physical state, and sterility. In vitro and in vivo drug release from the implants was also evaluated. The cytotoxic activity of implants against HeLa cells was studied. The short-term tolerance of the implants was investigated after subcutaneous implantation in mice. The original chemical structure of etoposide was preserved after incorporation into the polymeric matrix, in which the drug was dispersed uniformly. Etoposide was present in crystalline form in the polymeric implant. In vitro release study showed prolonged and controlled release of etoposide, which showed cytotoxicity activity against HeLa cells. After implantation, good correlation between in vitro and in vivo drug release was found. The implants demonstrated good short-term tolerance in mice. These results tend to show that etoposide-loaded implants could be potentially applied as a local etoposide delivery system.
- 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3-Loaded PLA Microspheres: In Vitro Characterization and Application in Diabetic Periodontitis Models. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AAPS PharmSciTech 2013 May 8.
This study aimed at the preparation of a sustained-release 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) treatment for diabetic periodontitis, a known complication of diabetes. 25OHD-loaded polylactic acid (PLA) microspheres were prepared using oil-in-water emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The prepared microspheres exhibited intact surfaces, with average sizes ranging from 42.3 to 119.4 μm. The encapsulation efficiency ranged from 79.2% (w/w) to 88.5% (w/w), and the drug content was between 15.8% (w/w) and 17.8% (w/w). Drug release from the produced microspheres followed a near-to-zero-order release pattern and lasted over 10 weeks. In an in vitro model of diabetic periodontitis, the abnormal morphological changes and the decrease in the cell viability of bone marrow stromal cells could be effectively attenuated after the 25OHD-loaded microsphere application. Additionally, in a rat model of diabetic periodontitis, alveolar bone loss was inhibited and osteoid formation in the periodontium was promoted upon 25OHD-loaded microsphere treatment. In conclusion, 25OHD-loaded PLA microspheres may provide an effective approach for the treatment of this disease.
- Development and Characterization of Propranolol Selective Molecular Imprinted Polymer Composite Electrospun Nanofiber Membrane. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AAPS PharmSciTech 2013 May 8.
Propranolol (PPL) imprinted microspheres (MIP) were successfully prepared via oil/water polymerization using a methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer, PLL template, and divinylbenzene (DVB) cross-linker and favorably incorporated in a Eudragit-RS100 nanofiber membrane. A non-PPL imprinted polymer (NIP), without a template, was used as a control. The morphology and particle size of the beads were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that both MIP and NIP had a spherical shape with a micron size of approximately 50-100 μm depending on the amounts of DVB and PPL used. NIP2 (MMA/DVB, 75:2.5) and MIP8 (PPL/MMA/DVB, 0.8:75:2.5) were selected for reloading of PPL, and the result indicated that increasing the ratio of PPL to polymer beads resulted in increase PPL reloading (>80%). A total of 10-50% NIP2 or MIP8 was incorporated into a 40% (w/v) Eudragit-RS100 fiber membrane using an electrospinning technique. PPL could be bound to the 50% MIP8 composite fiber membrane with a higher extent and at a higher rate than the control (NIP2). Furthermore, the MIP8 composite fiber membrane showed higher selectivity to PPL than the other β-blockers (atenolol, metoprolol, and timolol). Thus, the MIP8 composite fiber membrane can be further developed for various applications in pharmaceutical and other affinity separation fields.
- A Novel Multi-Unit Tablet for Treating Circadian Rhythm Diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AAPS PharmSciTech 2013 May 7.
This study aimed to develop and evaluate a novel multi-unit tablet that combined a pellet with a sustained-release coating and a tablet with a pulsatile coating for the treatment of circadian rhythm diseases. The model drug, isosorbide-5-mononitrate, was sprayed on microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)-based pellets and coated with Eudragit(®) NE30D, which served as a sustained-release layer. The coated pellets were compressed with cushion agents (a mixture of MCC PH-200/ MCC KG-802/PC-10 at a ratio of 40:40:20) at a ratio of 4:6 using a single-punch tablet machine. An isolation layer of OpadryII, swellable layer of HPMC E5, and rupturable layer of Surelease(®) were applied using a conventional pan-coating process. Central-composite design-response surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of these coatings on the square of the difference between release times over a 4 h time period. Drug release studies were carried out on formulated pellets and tablets to investigate the release behaviors, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to monitor the pellets and tablets and their cross-sectional morphology. The experimental results indicated that this system had a pulsatile dissolution profile that included a lag period of 4 h and a sustained-release time of 4 h. Compared to currently marketed preparations, this tablet may provide better treatment options for circadian rhythm diseases.
- Formulation and In Vivo Evaluation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets of Clozapine/Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AAPS PharmSciTech 2013 May 7.
The aim of this study was to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of clozapine (CLZ), a poorly water-soluble drug subjected to substantial first-pass metabolism, employing cyclodextrin complexation technique. The inclusion complexes were prepared by an evaporation method. Phase solubility studies, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to evaluate the complexation of CLZ with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and the formation of true inclusion complexes. Characterization and dissolution studies were carried out to evaluate the orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing CLZ/HP-β-CD complexes prepared by direct compression. Finally, the bioavailability studies of the prepared ODTs were performed by oral administration to rabbits. The ODTs showed a higher in vitro dissolution rate and bioavailability compared with the commercial tablets. It is evident from the results herein that the developed ODTs provide a promising drug delivery system in drug development, owing to their excellent performance of a rapid onset of action, improved bioavailability, and good patient compliance.
- New Direct Compression Excipient from Tigernut Starch: Physicochemical and Functional Properties. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AAPS PharmSciTech 2013 May 7.
Tigernut starch has been isolated and modified by forced retrogradation of the acidic gel by freezing and thawing processes. Relevant physicochemical and functional properties of the new excipient (tigernut starch modified by acid gelation and accelerated (forced) retrogradation (STAM)) were evaluated as a direct compression excipient in relation to the native tigernut starch (STNA), intermediate product (tigernut starch modified by acid gelation (STA)), and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The particle morphology, swelling capacity, moisture sorption, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) thermographs and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns, flow, dilution capacity, and tablet disintegration efficiency were evaluated. The particles of STNA were either round or oval in shape, STA were smooth with thick round edges and hollowed center while STAM were long, smooth, and irregularly shaped typically resembling MCC. The DSC thermographs of STNA and MCC showed two endothermic transitions as compared with STA and STAM which showed an endothermic and an exothermic. The moisture uptake, swelling, flow, and dilution capacity of STAM were higher than those of MCC, STA, and STNA. The XRD pattern and moisture sorption profile of STAM showed similarities and differences with STNA, STA, and MCC that relate the modification. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) tablets containing STAM disintegrated at 3 ± 0.5 min as compared with the tablets containing STNA, STA, and MCC which disintegrated at 8.5 ± 0.5, 10 ± 0.5, and 58 ± 0.8 min, respectively. The study shows the physicochemical properties of tigernut starch modified by forced retrogradation as well as its potential as an efficient direct compression excipient with enhanced flow and disintegration abilities for tablets production.
- Batch-to-Batch Quality Consistency Evaluation of Botanical Drug Products Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis of the Chromatographic Fingerprint. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AAPS PharmSciTech 2013 May 2.
Botanical drug products have batch-to-batch quality variability due to botanical raw materials and the current manufacturing process. The rational evaluation and control of product quality consistency are essential to ensure the efficacy and safety. Chromatographic fingerprinting is an important and widely used tool to characterize the chemical composition of botanical drug products. Multivariate statistical analysis has showed its efficacy and applicability in the quality evaluation of many kinds of industrial products. In this paper, the combined use of multivariate statistical analysis and chromatographic fingerprinting is presented here to evaluate batch-to-batch quality consistency of botanical drug products. A typical botanical drug product in China, Shenmai injection, was selected as the example to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. The high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint data of historical batches were collected from a traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing factory. Characteristic peaks were weighted by their variability among production batches. A principal component analysis model was established after outliers were modified or removed. Multivariate (Hotelling T (2) and DModX) control charts were finally successfully applied to evaluate the quality consistency. The results suggest useful applications for a combination of multivariate statistical analysis with chromatographic fingerprinting in batch-to-batch quality consistency evaluation for the manufacture of botanical drug products.
- Electrospun Chitosan Microspheres for Complete Encapsulation of Anionic Proteins: Controlling Particle Size and Encapsulation Efficiency. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AAPS PharmSciTech 2013 Apr 30.
Electrospinning was employed to fabricate chitosan microspheres by a single-step encapsulation of proteins without organic solvents. Chitosan in acetic acid was electrospun toward a grounded sodium carbonate solution at various electric potential and feeding rates. Electrospun microspheres became insoluble and solidified in the sodium carbonate solution by neutralization of chitosan acetate. When the freeze-dried microspheres were examined by scanning electron microscopy, the small particle size was obtained at higher voltages. This is explained by the chitosan droplet size at the electrospinning needle was clearly controllable by the electric potential. The recovery yield of chitosan microspheres was dependent on the concentration of chitosan solution due to the viscosity is the major factor affecting formation of chitosan droplet during curling of the electrospinning jets. For protein encapsulation, fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) was codissolved with chitosan in the solution and electrospun. At higher concentration of sodium carbonate solution and longer solidification time in the solution, the encapsulation efficiency of the protein was confirmed to be significantly high. The high encapsulation efficiency was achievable by instant solidification of microspheres and electrostatic interactions between chitosan and BSA. Release profiles of BSA from the microspheres showed that the protein release was faster in acidic solution due to dissolution of chitosan. Reversed-phase chromatography of the released fractions confirmed that exposure of BSA to acidic solution during the electrospinning did not result in structural changes of the encapsulated protein.
- Preparation and Evaluation of Solid Dispersions of A New Antitumor Compound Based on Early-Stage Preparation Discovery Concept. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AAPS PharmSciTech 2013 Apr 30.
Ensuring sufficient drug solubility is a crucial problem in pharmaceutical-related research. For water-insoluble drugs, various formulation approaches are employed to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of lead compounds. The goal of this study was to enhance the dissolution and absorption of a new antitumor lead compound, T-OA. Early-stage preparation discovery concept was employed in this study. Based on this concept, a solid dispersion system was chosen as the method of improving drug solubility and bioavailability. Solid dispersions of T-OA in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K30 were prepared by the solvent evaporation method. Dissolution testing determined that the ideal drug-to-PVP ratio was 1:5. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to confirm the formation of solid dispersions. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that T-OA was converted into an amorphous form. Both in vitro dissolution testing and the in vivo studies demonstrated that the solubility and bioavailability of T-OA were significantly improved when formulated in a solid dispersion with PVP. The dissolution rate of the T-OA/PVP solid dispersion was greatly enhanced relative to the pure drug, and the relative bioavailability of T-OA solid dispersions was found to be 392.0%, which is 4-fold higher than the pure drug.
- Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as Effective Reservoir Systems for Long-Term Preservation of Multidose Formulations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AAPS PharmSciTech 2013 Apr 27.
Cosmetic multidose preparations, as well as pharmaceutical ones, are at risk of contamination by microorganisms, due to their high water content. Besides the risk of contamination during manufacturing, multidose cosmetic preparations may be contaminated by consumers during their use. In this paper, the results of the utilization of nanoparticles as reservoir systems of parabens, the most used class of preservatives, were reported. Two different systems, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) made of pure precirol and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) made of precirol and almond oil, containing three parabens as single molecules or as a mixture, were prepared and tested. All the systems were characterized for size, polydispersion index, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency. Release experiments, carried out in steady state and sink conditions, allowed to evidence that both SLN and NLC were able to act as reservoir systems. The antimicrobial activity of the systems was tested against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 with repeat insult tests. The results of the release experiments and the antimicrobial tests showed very low water concentration of parabens still maintaining their antimicrobial activity.