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Acta Neurochir Suppl [journal]
- Differentiation of tumor progression and radiation-induced effects after intracranial radiosurgery. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Acta Neurochir Suppl 2013.:193-210.
A number of intracranial tumors demonstrate some degree of enlargement after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). It necessitates differentiation of their regrowth and various treatment-induced effects. Introduction of low-dose standards for SRS of benign neoplasms significantly decreased the risk of the radiation-induced necrosis after -management of schwannomas and meningiomas. Although in such cases a transient increase of the mass volume within several months after irradiation is rather common, it usually followed by spontaneous shrinkage. Nevertheless, distinguishing tumor recurrence from radiation injury is often required in cases of malignant parenchymal brain neoplasms, such as metastases and gliomas. The diagnosis is frequently complicated by histopathological heterogeneity of the lesion with coexistent viable tumor and treatment-related changes. Several neuroimaging modalities, namely structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, perfusion computed tomography (CT) and MRI, single-voxel and multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as single photon emission CT and positron emission tomography with various radioisotope tracers, may provide valuable diagnostic information. Each of these methods has advantages and limitations that may influence its usefulness and accuracy. Therefore, use of a multimodal radiological approach seems reasonable. Addition of functional and metabolic neuroimaging to regular structural MRI investigations during follow-up after SRS of parenchymal brain neoplasms may permit detailed evaluation of the treatment effects and early prediction of the response. If tissue sampling of irradiated intracranial lesions is required, it is preferably performed with the use of metabolic guidance. In conclusion, differentiation of tumor progression and radiation-induced effects after intracranial SRS is challenging. It should be based on a complex evaluation of the multiple clinical, radiosurgical, and radiological factors.
- Perspectives of 3 T magnetic resonance imaging in radiosurgical treatment planning. [Journal Article]
- Acta Neurochir Suppl 2013.:187-91.
The introduction of 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners for neuro-oncological diagnostics showed a general improvement of image quality, especially in terms of the detection and differentiation of intracranial tumors. Among the advantages of 3 T scanners compared to 1.5 T scanners are the possibility of higher spatial image resolution or shorter investigation times and the availability of functional imaging in sufficient quality. Consequently, the use of 3 T MRI for radiosurgery planning is highly desired. Functional MRI techniques (perfusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, MR spectroscopy, diffusion-weighted imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging) available at 3 T scanners provide not only better detection and differentiation but also significantly better delineation of intracranial tumors, which is a crucial feature for successful radiosurgical treatment planning. The use of multimodal morphological and functional MRI methods allows identification of the biologically most active parts of the tumors with consecutive changes in therapy planning. On the other hand, there are increased geometric distortions on MRI scans obtained at 3 T compared to 1.5 T, which makes their use limited for now. However, the newest studies show an acceptable degree of geometric distortion on the 3 T planning images using special imaging protocols, while additional investigations on this issue are needed to find the optimal technical solution.
- Usefulness of Leksell GammaPlan for preoperative planning of brain tumor resection: delineation of the cranial nerves and fusion of the neuroimaging data, including diffusion tensor imaging. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Acta Neurochir Suppl 2013.:179-85.
Leksell GammaPlan (LGP) software was initially designed for Gamma Knife radiosurgery, but it can be successfully applied to planning of the open neurosurgical procedures as well. We present our initial experience of delineating the cranial nerves in the vicinity of skull base tumors, combined visualization of the implanted subdural electrodes and cortical anatomy to facilitate brain mapping, and fusion of structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging performed with the use of LGP before removal of intracranial neoplasms. Such preoperative information facilitated choosing the optimal approach and general surgical strategy, and corresponded well to the intraoperative findings. Therefore, LGP may be helpful for planning open neurosurgical procedures in cases of both extraaxial and intraaxial intracranial tumors.
- Usefulness of the advanced neuroimaging protocol based on plain and gadolinium-enhanced constructive interference in steady state images for gamma knife radiosurgery and planning microsurgical procedures for skull base tumors. [Journal Article]
- Acta Neurochir Suppl 2013.:167-78.
Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) is currently performed with 0.1 mm preciseness, which can be designated microradiosurgery. It requires advanced methods for visualizing the target, which can be effectively attained by a neuroimaging protocol based on plain and gadolinium-enhanced constructive interference in steady state (CISS) images.Since 2003, the following thin-sliced images are routinely obtained before GKS of skull base lesions in our practice: axial CISS, gadolinium-enhanced axial CISS, gadolinium-enhanced axial modified time-of-flight (TOF), and axial computed tomography (CT). Fusion of "bone window" CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and detailed three-dimensional (3D) delineation of the anatomical structures are performed with the Leksell GammaPlan (Elekta Instruments AB). Recently, a similar technique has been also applied to evaluate neuroanatomy before open microsurgical procedures.Plain CISS images permit clear visualization of the cranial nerves in the subarachnoid space. Gadolinium-enhanced CISS images make the tumor "lucid" but do not affect the signal intensity of the cranial nerves, so they can be clearly delineated in the vicinity to the lesion. Gadolinium-enhanced TOF images are useful for 3D evaluation of the interrelations between the neoplasm and adjacent vessels. Fusion of "bone window" CT and MRI scans permits simultaneous assessment of both soft tissue and bone structures and allows 3D estimation and correction of MRI distortion artifacts.Detailed understanding of the neuroanatomy based on application of the advanced neuroimaging protocol permits performance of highly conformal and selective radiosurgical treatment. It also allows precise planning of the microsurgical procedures for skull base tumors.
- Optimal visualization of multiple brain metastases for gamma knife radiosurgery. [Journal Article]
- Acta Neurochir Suppl 2013.:159-66.
Optimal management of metastatic brain disease requires precise detection and detailed characterization of all intracranial lesions.We analyzed an experience with 3200 brain MRI investigations performed at 1.5 T and 3.0 T for identification and/or evaluation of intracranial metastases. Usually axial T1- and T2-weighted images and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images in axial and coronal and/or sagittal projections were obtained. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging were sometimes used as well. Routinely, 0.2 mmol/kg of gadoteridol (ProHance®) was administered intravenously, but the dose was reduced to 0.1 mmol/kg in elderly patients or in patients with mild renal dysfunction.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provided excellent information on tumor location; interrelations with functionally important intracranial structures; type of growth; vascularity; recent, old or multiple hemorrhages within or in the vicinity of the mass; presence of peritumoral edema; necrotic changes; subarachnoid dissemination; meningeal carcinomatosis. However, without administration of gadoteridol or without contrast enhancement, small metastatic tumors could not be reliably distinguished from brain lacunes. Some metastases (malignant melanoma, thyroid cancer, endocrine carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma) may demonstrate specific neuroimaging features. Non-metastatic -multiple brain lesions caused by vascular, inflammatory, demyelinative or lymphoproliferative diseases require a thorough differential diagnosis with metastatic brain tumors based not only on neuroimaging but on additional analysis of various clinical data.Contemporary MRI techniques provide excellent options for detection, detailed characterization, and differential diagnosis of metastatic brain tumors, which is extremely important when choosing the optimal treatment strategy, particularly with Gamma Knife radiosurgery.
- Importance of neuroimaging accuracy in radiosurgery. [Comment, Journal Article]
- Acta Neurochir Suppl 2013.:155-7.
- Blood DNA radiosensitivity may be predictive for efficacy of experimental glioma irradiation: an animal study. [Journal Article]
- Acta Neurochir Suppl 2013.:151-4.
An animal study was conducted to evaluate the -association between blood DNA radiosensitivity, assessed by determining the original S-index, and the response of experimental gliomas to irradiation. Possible modifications of the latter after administration of iron-containing water (ICW) were also explored.The study was performed on Wistar rats with subcutaneously implanted experimental glioma-35. The tumors were locally X-irradiated with a single 15 Gy dose. ICW (60-63 mg·Fe(2+)/l) was administered in the drinking water for 3 days before treatment. The animals underwent blood sampling for analysis of the DNA concentration and leukocyte count. DNA index was estimated 3 days before irradiation and 24 h thereafter. The S-index was evaluated within 4 h before irradiation.The mean initial S-index in the blood samples of glioma-bearing rats was 0.73 ± 0.05. Addition of ICW in vitro resulted in a significantly increased S-index in half of the samples. In general, the irradiated rats, which had been given pretreatment ICW and demonstrated an in vitro increase of the S-index to >1.0, showed the most marked inhibition of tumor progression and the smallest tumor volume 25 days after irradiation. They also exhibited the lowest rate of lesion growth and the longest survival.Determination of the biochemical S-index and evaluation of its changes in vitro caused by ICW may be predictive of the response of experimental glioma to irradiation. Because in vivo administration of ICW was associated with a somewhat better tumor response to treatment, it may be considered as a potential radiosensitizer.
- How to control propofol infusion in pediatric patients undergoing gamma knife radiosurgery. [Journal Article]
- Acta Neurochir Suppl 2013.:147-50.
Although Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) is commonly performed under local anesthesia, general anesthesia is sometimes required. The authors previously reported a remote-controlled patient management system consisting of propofol-based general anesthesia with a target-controlled infusion (TCI) that we designed for pediatric GKS. However, a commercially available propofol TCI system has age and weight limitations (<16 years and <30 kg). We examined a manually controlled regimen of propofol appropriate for pediatric GKS.A pharmacokinetic model of the TIVA Trainer© with Paedfusor's parameter was used. A manually controlled infusion scheme to achieve a sufficient level of propofol for pediatric GKS was examined in five models ranging from 10 to 30 kg.Following a loading dose of 3.0 mg/kg, the combination of continuous infusion of 14, 12, 10, and 8 mg/kg/h resulted in a target concentration of 3.0-4.0 μg/ml, the required level for pediatric GKS.Propofol titration is a key issue in GKS. Manual infusion is less accurate than TCI, but the combination of a small bolus and continuous infusion might be a substitute. Considering the characteristics of propofol pharmacokinetics in children, co-administration of opioids is recommended.
- Complications of gamma knife neurosurgery and their appropriate management. [Journal Article]
- Acta Neurochir Suppl 2013.:137-46.
There are four main risks with Gamma Knife neurosurgery. Firstly, there are direct complications that would not have arisen if the patient had not undergone the specific treatment under consideration. For radiosurgery, the direct complications are radiation-induced damage to the tissues, which may be temporary or permanent. They may be expressed clinically or be clinically silent. In addition, there are complications that are specific to certain diseases and their locations, such as pituitary failure following treatment of pituitary adenomas and deafness, facial palsy, or trigeminal deficit following the treatment of vestibular schwannomas. Second, there are indirect or management-related complications arising from delayed control of the disease process, such as a re-bleed after treatment of a vascular lesion before its occlusion. Third, there is the risk of induction of neoplasia from irradiation of normal tissue or tumor. These are separate processes. An example of the first would be induction of a glioma after treatment of a vascular malformation. An example of the second would be induction of malignant change in a benign vestibular schwannoma. Finally, there is treatment failure, where tumors continue to grow after treatment or vascular malformations fail to occlude.
- Long-term outcome of gamma knife surgery using a retrogasserian petrous bone target for classic trigeminal neuralgia. [Journal Article]
- Acta Neurochir Suppl 2013.:127-35.
Gamma knife surgery (GKS) is the prevailing method for treatment of medically intractable trigeminal neuralgia (TN), although there are some technical differences among radiosurgical centers. We assessed the long-term outcomes of GKS using retrogasserian petrous bone targeting and evaluated factors associated with the clinical outcomes.Between December 2003 and June 2009, a total of 91 GKS treatments were performed in 90 patients with classic TN. The surgical target was defined at the anterior portion of the trigeminal nerve, just above the retrogasserian petrous bone. A single 4-mm collimator was used to deliver a median 88.0 Gy (range 75-90 Gy) dose of radiation.During follow-up, which ranged from 24 to 90 months, 89 patients (97.8 %) reported initial pain relief, 75 (82.4 %) experienced pain control, and 47 (51.6 %) achieved a pain-free state without medications at the last follow-up. Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) scores of I-III at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 years were observed in 84 of 91, 68 of 77, 46 of 53, 33 of 36, 17 of 19, and 7 of 7 patients, respectively. Trigeminal nerve dysfunction was experienced by 34 patients, with 12 having BNI facial numbness scores of III-IV (13.2 %). In all, 14 patients (15.4 %) experienced pain recurrence at a mean 32 months (range 10-62 months) after treatment. The actuarial rates of pain control at 2, 4, and 6 years were 93 %, 88 %, and 79 %, respectively.Gamma Knife radiosurgery is an efficient option for intractable TN. Our results can help medical practitioners to counsel their patients on the likelihood of achieving successful pain control.