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Acta Odontol Scand [journal]
- Tumor necrosis factor mediates temporomandibular joint bone tissue resorption in rheumatoid arthritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Dec 17.:1-9.
Abstract Objective. To investigate if TNF, IL-1 or their endogenous controls, in relation to ACPA, are associated with radiological signs of ongoing temporomandibular joint (TMJ) bone tissue resorption and disc displacement in RA patients. Methods. Twenty-two consecutive outpatients with TMJ of RA were included. Systemic inflammatory activity was assessed by DAS28. The number of painful regions in the body and ESR, CRP, RF and ACPA were analyzed. TMJ synovial fluid and blood samples were obtained and analyzed for TNF, TNFsRII, IL-1ra, IL-1sRII and ACPA. The ratios between the mediators and their endogenous control receptors were used in the statistical analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in closed- and open-mouth positions and evaluated regarding disc position and presence of condylar and temporal erosions of the TMJ. Results. A high TNF level in relation to TNFsRII in TMJ synovial fluid correlated to the degree of TMJ condylar erosion. A high IL-1ra level in relation to TNF in TMJ synovial fluid was also correlated to the degree of TMJ condylar erosion. The total degree of TMJ condylar erosion was correlated with the number of painful regions. Conclusion. This study indicates that TNF in TMJ synovial fluid mediates TMJ cartilage and bone tissue resorption in RA. The study also suggests that the degree of endogenous cytokine control is of importance for development of bone tissue destruction.
- Root caries, root surface restorations and lifestyle factors in adult Danes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Dec 3.:1-7.
Aim.To investigate selected lifestyle factors in relation to active caries and restored root surface lesions in adults. Materials and methods. Based on clinical examinations and questionnaires, data on root caries, socioeconomic status, body mass index, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, tobacco use and oral hygiene routines were collected from 4369 adults aged 21-89 who took part in a survey covering 13 municipalities across Denmark. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to analyse the relationship between the independent lifestyle variables and active caries and restored root surface lesions, respectively.
Results.The prevalence of active root caries was 4%, while 26% displayed restored root surfaces. The sugar intake was not related to root caries. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that, in subjects aged 45 or over, smoking and wearing dentures were significantly associated with presence of active root caries (p < 0.01). The intake of 15 drinks or more per week was associated with higher odds of root surface restorations compared with no alcohol intake (OR = 1.7; p < 0.001).
Conclusions.Lifestyle factors such as tobacco use and alcohol consumption, as well as wearing dentures, were significantly associated with the occurrence of untreated caries and restored root surface lesions, especially in persons over 45. Thus, such lifestyle factors should be taken into consideration, identifying persons with a need of preventive dental services. In addition, oral health education should focus on the possible risks of smoking and a high alcohol intake.
- Effect of lidocaine patches on upper trapezius EMG activity and pain intensity in patients with myofascial trigger points: A randomized clinical study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Nov 27.:1-9.
Objective.To compare the effects of 5% lidocaine patches and placebo patches on pain intensity and electromyographic (EMG) activity of an active myofascial trigger point (MTrP) of the upper trapezius muscle. Materials and methods. Thirty-six patients with a MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into two groups: 20 patients received lidocaine patches (lidocaine group) and 16 patients received placebo patches (placebo group). They used the patches for 12 h each day, for 2 weeks. The patch was applied to the skin over the upper trapezius MTrP. Spontaneous pain, pressure pain thresholds, pain provoked by a 4-kg pressure applied to the MTrP and trapezius EMG activity were measured before and after treatment.
Results.Baseline spontaneous pain values were similar in both groups and significantly lower in the lidocaine group than the placebo group after treatment. The baseline pressure pain threshold was significantly lower in the lidocaine group, but after treatment it was significantly higher in this group. Baseline and final values of the pain provoked by a 4-kg pressure showed no significant difference between the groups. Baseline EMG activity at rest and during swallowing of saliva was significantly higher in the lidocaine group, but no significant difference was observed after treatment. Baseline EMG activity during maximum voluntary clenching was similar in both groups, but significantly higher in the lidocaine group after treatment.
Conclusions.These clinical and EMG results support the use of 5% lidocaine patches for treating patients with MTrP of the upper trapezius muscle.
- Signs and symptoms after temporomandibular joint washing and cannula placement assessed by cone beam computerized tomography. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Nov 27.:1-7.
Objective.Analyses of temporomandibular joint synovial fluid using the hydroxocobalamin push-pull technique are increasingly used. However, objective complications and subjective experiences from this procedure have not been described. Firstly, this study aimed to describe discomfort and potential side-effects of this method with special emphasis on symptoms related to the arthrocentesis to be used for future patient information and Ethical Committee applications. Secondly, this study aimed to evaluate the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as control of intra-capsular cannula placement. Methods. Twenty healthy, young adult volunteers were included. Extensive objective and subjective questionnaires were completed before and 14 days after the synovial fluid sampling. With the cannula inside the joints a CBCT was done to investigate if this procedure can be used to verify intra-capsular cannula position.
Results.The subjective findings: Most subjects did experience mild pain or discomfort post-operatively. In 12 of 20 subjects symptoms had resolved after 2 days and no subjects had symptoms for more than a week. The longer lasting symptoms were mainly transient joint sounds on mandibular movement. Objective findings: 14 days after the sampling mandibular protrusion had improved 1 mm, but all other objective measures were equal compared to baseline. CBCT showed a large variation in cannula position and no conclusions could be drawn from this.
Conclusion.The hydroxocobalamin push-pull synovial fluid sampling may cause minor, transient symptoms. CBCT does not seem to provide any clinical benefits concerning the correct cannula position in relation to the upper joint compartment and disc.
- Can periodontal infection induce genotoxic effects? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Nov 27.:1-7.
Objective.This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities, through micronuclei, and apoptosis by the sum of karyorrhexis, pyknosis and condensed chromatin in individuals with chronic periodontitis, gingivitis associated with biofilm and no periodontal disease. Materials and methods. This study included 72 individuals divided into three groups: gingivitis (n = 21), periodontitis (n = 24) and control (n = 27). Information on sociodemographic characteristics, health and lifestyle was obtained. Full mouth clinical examination was performed to define the periodontal condition. Exfoliated cells from gingival mucosa were collected for computation of micronuclei and nuclear changes indicative of apoptosis. The differences in the occurrence of endpoints (micronucleus, karyorrhexis, pyknosis and condensed chromatin) were evaluated using the conditional test to compare proportions in a rare events situation.
Results.There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of micronucleus (p > 0.1) between gingivitis, periodontitis and control groups. The occurrence of apoptosis was significantly higher among individuals with periodontitis compared to individuals with gingivitis (p < 0.05) and controls (p < 0.025).
Conclusions.The findings showed that the inflammatory process generated by gingivitis and periodontitis is not related to a higher occurrence of chromosomal damage. However, the higher occurrence of apoptosis in individuals with periodontitis points to genotoxic effects induced by periodontal infection.
- Consecutive unsplinted implant-supported restorations to replace lost multiple adjacent posterior teeth: A 4-year prospective cohort study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Nov 25.:1-6.
Objective.The aim of this study was to investigate the various events occurring in unsplinted implant restoration in posterior jaws during a period of 4 years. Materials and methods. From August 2008 to April 2009, eight volunteers (three men and five women) who had two or more consecutively missing teeth received 20 implants in posterior maxillae and mandibles. Unsplinted single crowns were delivered to each implant. For the 4-year follow-up periods, patients were enrolled in a maintenance schedule at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months. The data, including a questionnaire, radiography, mobility and probing were recorded on regular check-ups.
Results.A total of 20 implants in eight patients were followed up for 48 months, showing a 100% survival rate. Mean marginal bone loss around implants was 0.26 mm. Statistical analysis revealed insignificant correlation between metal-ceramic and zirconia-ceramic crowns and among implant lengths (8.5 mm, 10 mm and 11.5 mm). Mean probing depths were similar or insignificantly different, regardless of the materials used or length of implants. The most frequent complications, in decreasing order, were food impaction (65%) and porcelain chipping (45%), sensitivity (25%), pain (20%) and loose contact (15%). Compared with metal-ceramic crowns, zirconia-ceramic crowns showed more unfavorable cases of porcelain chipping (p = 0.017), pain (p = 0.007) and loose contact with an adjacent crown (p = 0.031).
Conclusions.Within the limits of the sample size, this study showed that unsplinted implant-supported single restorations to replace consecutive posterior missing teeth may function well.
- White spot lesions after orthodontic treatment assessed by clinical photographs and by quantitative light-induced fluorescence imaging; a retrospective study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Nov 25.:1-6.
Objective.White spot lesions (WSL) are an important side-effect of orthodontic multi-bracket (MB) treatment. Standardized monitoring of such WSL may help in caries management. Materials and methods. In this retrospective study the discriminatory power of caries assessment on routine digital oral photographs was compared to quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) imaging in monitoring WSL development after debonding of orthodontic appliances. Oral and QLF photographs captured directly after debond (T1) and 1 year thereafter (T2) of 51 subjects, treated with full MB orthodontic appliances were used. Oral photographs were assessed by use of The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) at both time points independently and by side-by-side comparison to assess visual transition (VT). QLF photographs were categorized based on integrated fluorescence loss at T1 and T2.
Results.At T1 433 and 384 lesions on 918 buccal surfaces were detected using ICDAS and QLF, respectively. For both methods these numbers were reduced at T2. Changes within ICDAS scores were recorded by VT and showed mainly lesion improvement within ICDAS score 2.
Conclusion.The oral and QLF photographs both showed regression of WSL after debonding of MB orthodontic appliances. The VT evaluation was found to have higher discriminatory power in comparison to ICDAS.
- How do dentists use CBCT in dental clinics? A Norwegian nationwide survey. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Nov 21.:1-7.
Objectives.Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was introduced to Norwegian dental clinics in 2007. The aim of the study was to investigate how dental clinics use this imaging modality, including factors related to workflow and image quality, and to evaluate dentists' opinions on and experiences of using it. Materials and methods. A web-based 59-item questionnaire regarding the clinical use of CBCT was sent to all 39 CBCT clinics in Norway.
Results.Twenty-nine clinics (74%) responded. Most respondents (93%) were from clinics with more than one dentist and 83% had at least one specialist. All clinics had digital intraoral x-ray receptors and all but one had panoramic imaging. The most common indications for CBCT were implant treatment planning (34% of all clinics) and localization of impacted teeth (43% of specialist clinics). Seventy-two per cent of clinics reported an average of four or fewer CBCT examinations each week and 83% of respondents were subjectively satisfied with the image quality. The most commonly used enhancement functions were contrast (97%), brightness (90%) and zoom (86%).
Conclusions.The Norwegian CBCT clinics surveyed were fully digitized and had multiple dentists. Periodontists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons were the most frequent specialties represented in the clinics. Clinics with only dental specialists performed more CBCT examinations/week than clinics with general practitioners or both general practitioners and specialists. The most common indications for CBCT examinations were related to treatment planning. This study found some challenges related to image quality and communication within the radiological team.
- Smoking and attitudes towards it and its cessation among dental students in Latvia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Nov 21.:1-6.
Background.The prevalence of smoking is higher in Latvia than in most EU countries. This study aimed to determine the level of knowledge of dental students in Latvia about the effects of smoking on oral health and their attitudes toward smoking and its cessation. Methods. A cross-sectional survey among all the dental students in Latvia was conducted in 2011. Students at the Riga Stradins University were asked to participate in this anonymous, voluntary survey. The questionnaire included items concerned with the students' own smoking habits, their knowledge of smoking as an addiction and its health effects and their attitudes towards its prevention and cessation in a dental setting. The response rate was 87% (173/200). The Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for the statistical analyses.
Results.About one quarter of the students (24%) were daily or occasional smokers and almost half of the male students (46%) had smoked at least 100-times in their lifetime. The students revealed a lack of knowledge about the addictive nature of smoking, in that about half of the students did not consider smoking physically or socially addictive. About one fifth (21.4%) didn't consider environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) harmful to one's health. Although the students' awareness of smoking improved during their studies, the most significant factor related to their knowledge was their own smoking history (OR = 2.7; p = 0.021).
Conclusions.Smoking was frequent among undergraduate dental students and they lacked knowledge of its addictiveness. More emphasis ought to be placed on education with regard to smoking and on cessation services.
- Oral health-related quality-of-life in Swedish children before and after dental treatment under general anesthesia. [Journal Article]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2015 Jan; 73(1):1-7.