Acta Odontol Scand [journal]
- Relationship between salivary immunoglobulin a, lactoferrin and lysozyme flow rates and lifestyle factors in Japanese children: a cross-sectional study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Aug 26.:1-8.
The antimicrobial substances in saliva contribute to the maintenance of both oral health and overall health of the body. Therefore, the associations among immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin and lysozyme flow rates in the saliva of children, and their relationships with the physical attributes and lifestyle factors of children, were examined.Saliva was collected from 90 children who visited the Kanagawa Dental University Hospital Pediatric Dentistry, and questionnaires were completed by guardians. IgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme concentrations were measured in the saliva samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).The IgA flow rate in saliva increased as age, height and weight increased. A correlation was found between lactoferrin and lysozyme flow rates. When the antimicrobial substance flow rates in the saliva were divided into two groups of 22 children each based on the highest and lowest quartiles, children with either a low or high IgA flow rate also had a high or low lactoferrin flow rate, respectively. The same pattern was observed for lactoferrin and lysozyme flow rates.There is a high probability that the IgA flow rate in the saliva of children reflects and corresponds to the developmental status of immune function as the child ages and increases in height and weight. The flow rates of lactoferrin and lysozyme were correlated in children. In addition, regarding lifestyle factors, the duration of sleep and lactoferrin flow rate were also related.
- Gender differences in the pathways of family factors influencing children's oral health behaviours: a cross-sectional study of primary school students in Beijing, China. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Aug 26.:1-6.
Research on what family factors influence children's oral health behaviours (COHB) in developing countries is limited, and there have been no path analyses accounting for gender differences in these factors. Thus, our study evaluated gender differences in COHB including the influencing pathways of family factors in China.Through multistage cluster sampling, 915 pairs of mothers and children from six public elementary schools in Beijing completed self-administered questionnaires regarding COHB, parents' modelling behaviours (PMB), parents' controlling behaviours (PCB), parents' oral health knowledge and attitudes (PKA), and children's oral health knowledge and attitudes (CKA). The influencing factors were analysed using path analysis.Compared with boys, girls showed significantly better performance in drinking less carbonated drinks regularly (8.6% vs. 16.9%). For both genders, PMB shad a significant direct influence on COHB, while PKA had an indirect influence through PMB. In the boys' model, PKA indirectly influenced COHB through CKA. In the girls' model, socioeconomic status had a positive direct effect on COHB.The gender differences were not as large as expected. Given that slightly different influential factors for COHB exist between boys and girls, interventions should take note of the similarities and differences in pathways.
- Alendronate alters osteoblast activities. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Aug 22.:1-8.
Due to accumulation in the bone matrix and a half-life of at least 10 years, it is important to understand the cellular impact of bisphosphonates (BPs). This study assessed the effects of alendronate (ALN) on human primary osteoblasts.Osteoblasts were incubated with ALN (5, 20 and 100 μM), and both cells and cell culture media were harvested after d 1, 3, 7 or 14. Proliferation was evaluated by (3)H-thymidine incorporation and tetrazolium dye (MTT) colorimetric assay, and viability by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the medium. Differentiation was evaluated using protein Luminex multiplex assays and RT-PCR.ALN had no significant effects on cell viability. The lower concentrations enhanced the proliferation, whereas 100 μM diminished the proliferation. mRNA expression of osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and α-1 type 1 collagen were reduced, whereas ALN enhanced the expression of leptin mRNA and the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES).ALN enhanced the secretion of immune factors from human osteoblasts. Combined with a lower rate of proliferation and a decline in differentiation, this indicates that higher dosages or accumulation may cause undesirable local changes in bone.
- Evaluation of peri-implant crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 levels in augmented extraction sockets by different biomaterials. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Aug 22.:1-7.
This study compares peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels, clinical parameters and implant stability quotient (ISQ) values around implants placed in augmented extraction sockets.The sockets (24 in total) were randomly augmented using either EMD or Bio-Oss Collagen. Implant placements were performed after three months of healing. ISQ readings were evaluated at three points: at the time of surgery, at the first month and at the third month. PICF was collected for PGE2 evaluation after the first and the third months of implant surgery.After the first month, a higher level of PICF PGE2 was observed in the EMD group than in the Bio-Oss Collagen group, and this increase was of statistical significance; however, at the third month there was no statistically significant difference in PICF PGE2 levels between the two groups. For implants placed in EMD sites, ISQ values were statistically higher at the third month than at the first month, while no significant differences in ISQ value were detected between the first and third months in Bio-Oss Collagen sites.The results of this research suggest that both EMD and Bio-Oss Collagen are effective treatment modalities for stimulating the formation of new bone at extraction sites prior to implant surgery.
- The role of titanium-prepared platelet-rich fibrin in palatal mucosal wound healing and histoconduction. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Aug 19.:1-7.
We aimed to determine the clinical effects of titanium-prepared, platelet-rich fibrin (T-PRF) on human palatal mucosal wound healing (PMWH) and to identify its effect on time-dependent changes in palatal soft-tissue thickness (PSTT) in terms of histoconduction, which is a new concept.Free gingival graft (FGG) donor sites were treated with T-PRF and compared with an untreated control group. The results of colour match and H2O2-bubbling tests for complete wound epithelization (CWE) were recorded on days 3, 7, 14 and 21. Pain level, number of analgesics used and bleeding status were recorded for the first 7 days. PSTT was measured at baseline and after 1 and 6 months.Colour match scores of the test group were significantly higher than those of the control group at 7 and 14 days. CWE was observed at a higher frequency in the test group than in the control group on day 14. Post-operative bleeding prevalence was lower in the test group than in the control group for the first 2 days. A time-dependent decrease in PSTT was observed at 1 and 6 months in the control group compared with baseline (baseline, 4.23 ± 0.62 mm; 1 month, 4.01 ± 0.68 mm; and 6 months, 3.93 ± 0.69 mm). However, no significant difference was found in the test group (baseline, 4.29 ± 0.64 mm; 1 month, 4.61 ± 0.51 mm; and 6 months, 4.51 ± 0.58 mm).The T-PRF membrane exhibited positive effects on PMWH. T-PRF, which is a promising autogenous matrix for histoconduction, may also be preferred as an autogenous alternative to connective tissue grafts in the treatment of gingival recessions and peri-implant mucosal recessions.
- Candida infection in oral leukoplakia: an unperceived public health problem. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Aug 19.:1-5.
The study aimed to determine the proportion, known risk factors and etiology for Candida infection in leukoplakia lesions among patients with oral leukoplakia attending the Oral and Maxillofacial Clinic at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sri Lanka.Eighty clinically suspected oral leukoplakia patients were included. Two oral swabs each, from leukoplakia patients: one swab from the lesion and the other one from the contralateral unaffected corresponding area (as a control) were collected. Direct microscopy and culture followed by colony count and phenotypic identification were performed to identify pathogenic Candida species.Candida infection was seen in 47% of patients with oral leukoplakia. Candida albicans (94.7%) was the most common Candida species followed by Candida tropicalis (5.3%). Majority of Candida-infected lesions were seen in the buccal mucosa region. Alteration of taste (p = 0.021), having other oral lesions (p = 0.008), angular cheilitis (p = 0.024) and periodontitis (p = 0.041) showed a significant association with Candida-associated leukoplakia. Increasing age showed a significant tendency for Candida infection (p = 0.020). Smoking (p = 0.026) and betel-quid chewing (p = 0.006) were also found to be significantly associated, although alcohol consumption alone did not show a significant association. Oral leukoplakia patients who had all three habits: alcohol consumption, smoking and betel-quid chewing had a significant association with Candida infection (p = 0.004).Patients who had a combination of risk factors: smoking, betel-quid chewing and alcohol consumption were seen to have a significant association with Candida infection. Further betel-quid chewing alone and smoking singly was also significantly associated with Candida infection in oral leukoplakia.
- Awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by children and their parents in Democratic People's Republic of Korea after a preventive programme. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Aug 3.:1-7.
The study aimed to examine awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by children and their parents in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), after a preventive programme.The data were collected in 2013 with self-completed, partly structured questionnaires from 1994 children aged 10 and 13 years and from 200 parents. Association between awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by the children and their parents was evaluated using Chi square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses, children's oral health habits according to themselves and their parents were analysed using McNemar's test.Both children and their parents seemed to be familiar with healthy oral habits, although the awareness was not directly related to the reports of the children's oral practices. Most of the children reported brushing their teeth at least twice a day, using fluoride toothpaste and drinking water for thirst but frequent sweet snacking was common. Children's and their parents' reports were consistent with regard to sweet snacking frequency (p = 0.736) and the main thirst quencher (p = 0.349).Awareness of healthy oral habits appeared to be good among children and their parents. Unhealthy oral habits seemed to coincide with one another.
- The influence of altered functional loading and posterior bite-blocks on the periodontal ligament space and alveolar bone thickness in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Jul 27.:1-7.
Posterior bite-blocks are resin-based structures elevating the occlusion and creating intrusive force on the posterior teeth. Bite-blocks were applied to the molars of growing rats and a hard and soft diet was used to create altered functional masticatory forces. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of this appliance on the periodontal ligament space and alveolar bone thickness when combined with altered masticatory forces.Fifty-two four-week-old rats were divided into two groups, hard and soft diet. Two weeks later, half of them received a bite-block appliance, creating four groups: control hard (CH), control soft (CS), bite-block hard (BH) and bite-block soft (BS). All were sacrificed at age of 10 weeks. Their heads were scanned by micro-CT and periodontal ligament space (PDL) width, cross-sectional alveolar socket surface and alveolar bone thickness were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the groups.The PDL was 9.2% thinner in the CS group (p < 0.001) and 20.7% in the bite-block groups (p < 0.001) compared to the CH group. Within each of the four groups, the mesiodistal PDL space was larger than the palatobuccal. The alveolar bone was thinner by 5.8% (p = 0.018) in the CS group, 10.7% in the BH group (p < 0.001) and 16.7% in the BS group (p < 0.001) compared to the CH group.Young rats wearing posterior bite-blocks have narrower PDL space and thinner alveolar bone compared to controls. When fed a soft diet, the alveolar bone is even thinner but the PDL showed no difference.
- Third-molar mineralization as a function of available retromolar space. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Jul 22.:1-9.
To test in the maxilla and mandible for an association between stage of third-molar (M3) mineralization and space in the jaws for M3 eruption. Mineralization is hypothesized to be delayed not only for impacted M3s but also for M3s with eruption space less than their mesiodistal crown diameter.Retrospective cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of 37 females and 32 males aged 17-24 years, for a total sample of 197 upper and lower M3s, were used to assess the status of M3 eruption and measure the M3 crown diameter (CD) relative to the length of the retromolar space (RS). Stage of M3 mineralization was then compared between impacted and erupting M3s as well as between two conditions of relative eruption space (RS/CD ≥ 1 versus RS/CD < 1) using Mann-Whitney U tests.Impacted M3s were at significantly earlier (delayed) stages of mineralization compared to erupting M3s. Mineralization was also delayed for M3s with eruption space less than their mesiodistal crown diameter (e.g. RS/CD < 1). A moderate positive correlation between stage of M3 mineralization and space was seen in both jaws, and was stronger in the mandible.Our study shows for the first time that stage of M3 mineralization is associated not only with impaction but also with amount of retromolar space, and that these associations are consistent in upper and lower jaws. Present findings underscore that M3 mineralization stage may be a clinically useful predictor of M3 impaction that thus merits further investigation.
- Comparison of three different options for immediate treatment of painful temporomandibular disorders: a randomized, controlled pilot trial. [Journal Article]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Aug; 74(6):480-6.
The purpose of this study was to compare the short-term effectiveness of three different types of immediate, non-pharmacological intervention for alleviation of the painful symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD).Thirty-six patients (mean age 41.6 ± 16.7 years, 25 females) diagnosed with non-dysfunctional painful TMD received counselling and subsequently were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: patients in Group A received prefabricated oral splints with water-filled elastic pads (Aqualizer(®)), those in Group B were provided with vacuum-formed co-polyester oral splints and those in Group C were given appointments to receive Michigan-type hard splints. Clinical examination was conducted, at baseline and after 2 weeks, by use of the RDC/TMD. Current pain intensity was determined by evaluation of graded chronic pain status (GCPS) on a numerical rating scale (NRS). Active maximum mouth opening without pain (AMMOP) was also measured. Paired sample t-tests and one-way analysis of variance with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05 were conducted.After 2 weeks, overall mean current pain was reduced by 41.95% (p < 0.001). Current pain reduction was significant for Group B (66.6%, p < 0.001) but not for Groups A (37.88%, p = 0.56) and C (22.29%, p = 0.26). After 2 weeks, current pain level for Group B was significantly lower than that for Group C (p = 0.041). Overall, there was a statistically significant increase of AMMOP (p = 0.01).All therapeutic options were pain-reducing. The results from this study suggest that cost-effective and time-effective intervention of counselling combined with use of a vacuum-formed splint is a favourable option for initial, short-term treatment of painful TMD.