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Acta Odontol Scand [journal]
- The histopathological and morphometric investigation of the effects of systemically administered boric acid on alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis in diabetic rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Apr 11.
Abstract Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemically administered boric acid on alveolar bone loss, histopathological changes and oxidant/antioxidant status in ligature-induced periodontitis in diabetic rats. Materials and methods. Forty-four Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups: (1) non-ligated (NL, n = 6) group, (2) ligature only (LO, n = 6) group, (3) Streptozotocin only (STZ, n = 8) group, (4) STZ and ligature (STZ+LO, n = 8) group, (5) STZ, ligature and systemic administration of 15 mg/kg/day boric acid for 15 days (BA15, n = 8) group and (6) STZ, ligature and systemic administration of 30 mg/kg/day boric acid for 15 days (BA30, n = 8) group. Diabetes mellitus was induced by 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. Silk ligatures were placed at the gingival margin of lower first molars of the mandibular quadrant. The study duration was 15 days after diabetes induction and the animals were sacrificed at the end of this period. Changes in alveolar bone levels were clinically measured and tissues were histopathologically examined. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels and oxidative stress index (OSI) were evaluated. Primary outcome was alveolar bone loss. Seconder outcome (osteoblast number) was also measured. Results. At the end of 15 days, the alveolar bone loss was significantly higher in the STZ+LO group compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in alveolar bone loss between the STZ+LO 15 mg/kg boric acid and STZ+LO 30 mg/kg boric acid groups (p > 0.05). Systemically administered boric acid significantly decreased alveolar bone loss compared to the STZ+LO group (p < 0.05). The osteoblast number in the BA30 group was significantly higher than those of the NL, STZ and STZ+LO groups (p < 0.05). Inflammatory cell infiltration was significantly higher in the STZ+LO group the other groups (p < 0.05). Serum TAS levels were significantly higher in the NL and LO groups than the other groups (p < 0.05). The differences in TOS levels were not found to be significant among all the groups (p > 0.05). The OSI values of the BA30 group were significantly lower than the STZ+LO group (p < 0.05). Also, the differences in serum calcium and magnesium levels were insignificant among the all groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion. Within the limits of this study, it can be suggested that BA, when administered systemically, may reduce alveolar bone loss in the diabetic rat model.
- Association between periodontal disease and non-fatal ischemic stroke: a case-control study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Apr 11.
Abstract Objective. This study aimed to investigate the association between clinical and radiological markers of periodontal disease and ischemic stroke and to assess the potential influence of inflammatory response on the observed associations. Methods. A prospective case-control study including a series of 48 cases with a minor ischemic stroke and 47 controls was conducted at the University Hospital of Dijon. Vascular risk factors, clinical dental examination (plaque index, gingival index, percentage of pockets >5 mm, percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) sites), dental panoramic (bone loss) and biological parameters (CRP, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, fasting glucose) were collected. Conditional regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with ischemic stroke. Results. The prevalence of hypertension, high CRP and glucose levels and overall odontological variables was higher in stroke patients. In multivariable analyses, hypertension (OR = 12.56; 95% CI = 2.29-69.96, p = 0.004), CRP levels >5 mg/L (OR = 18.54; 95% CI = 2.01-171.17, p = 0.010), BOP (OR = 1.049; 95% CI = 1.012-1.88, p = 0.009) and bone loss >20% (OR = 1.053; 95% CI = 1.017-1.091, p = 0.004) were associated with ischemic stroke. Among stroke patients, there was a non-significant trend towards higher CRP levels in patients with bone loss >20% compared with those with bone loss <20% (8.1 ± 1.27 mg/L vs 3.12 ± 3.14 mg/L, p = 0.25), whereas other biological parameters were very similar between the two groups. Conclusion. This case-control study demonstrates that periodontal disease, especially markers such as BOP and bone loss, is independently associated with ischemic stroke.
- Risk factors associated with incidence and persistence of frequent headaches. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Apr 7.
Abstract Objective. Headaches represent a significant public health problem, but the knowledge of factors specifically related to incidence and persistence of headaches is still limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether gender, self-reported bruxism and variations in the dental occlusion contribute to onset and persistence of frequent headaches. Materials and methods. The study population comprised 280 dental students, examined annually in a 2-year prospective study with a questionnaire and a clinical examination of the jaw function. In the analysis subjects were dichotomized into cases with frequent (once a week or more) or without frequent headaches (controls). The 2-year cumulative incidence was based on subjects without frequent headaches at baseline. Cases with 2-year persistent headaches reported such symptoms at all three examinations. Self-reported bruxism and factors in the dental occlusion at baseline were used as independent variables in logistic regression analyses. Results. The 2-year cumulative incidence of frequent headaches was 21%. Female gender (OR = 2.6; CI = 1.3-5.4), self-reported bruxism (OR = 2.3; CI = 1.2-4.4) and mandibular instability in intercuspal position (OR = 3.2; CI = 1.4-7.5) were associated with incidence of frequent headaches. Persistent headaches during the observation period were present in 12 individuals (4%) and significantly related to mandibular instability in intercuspal position (OR = 6.1; CI = 1.6-22.6). Conclusions. The results indicate that female gender, self-reported bruxism and mandibular instability in intercuspal position are of importance in the development of frequent headaches. In management of these patients a multidisciplinary approach including dentists may be important and, thus, advocated.
- The effects of TMJ symptoms on skeletal morphology in orthodontic patients with TMJ disc displacement. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Apr 7.
Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) symptoms on skeletal morphologies of orthodontic patients with TMJ disc displacement (DD). Materials and methods. The sample consisted of 197 women seeking orthodontic treatment. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the presence of TMJ symptoms: the presence and absence of TMJ symptoms. Each group was sub-divided into three groups based on magnetic resonance images of bilateral TMJs: bilateral normal disc position (BN), bilateral disc displacement with reduction (DDR) and bilateral disc displacement without reduction (DDNR). Seventeen variables from lateral cephalograms were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance to identify differences in skeletal morphologies with respect to TMJ symptoms and TMJ DD status. Results. Patients with TMJ DD were more likely to have short ramus height, short mandibular body length and backward positioning of the ramus and mandible. These skeletal morphologies became more severe as TMJ DD progressed to DDNR. However, the skeletal morphologies associated with TMJ DD were not significantly different between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. As a result, patients with TMJ DD had backward positioning and clockwise rotation compared to those with bilateral normal TMJs, irrespective of the presence of TMJ symptom. Conclusions. This study suggests that TMJ DD is associated with altered skeletal morphology, but TMJ symptoms do not significantly influence the relationships between TMJ DD and skeletal morphology.
- Comparison of shear test methods for evaluating the bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Apr 4.
Abstract Objective. This study compared the sensitivity of three shear test methods for measuring the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin cement to zirconia ceramic and evaluated the effects of surface treatment methods on the bonding. Materials and methods. Polished zirconia ceramic (Cercon® base, DeguDent) discs were randomly divided into four surface treatment groups: no treatment (C), airborne-particle abrasion (A), conditioning with Alloy primer (Kuraray Medical Co.) (P) and conditioning with Alloy primer after airborne-particle abrasion (AP). The bond strengths of the resin cement (Multilink N, Ivoclar Vivadent) to the zirconia specimens of each surface treatment group were determined by three SBS test methods: the conventional SBS test with direct filling of the mold (Ø 4 mm × 3 mm) with resin cement (Method 1), the conventional SBS test with cementation of composite cylinders (Ø 4 mm × 3 mm) using resin cement (Method 2) and the microshear bond strength (μSBS) test with cementation of composite cylinders (Ø 0.8 mm × 1 mm) using resin cement (Method 3). Results. Both the test method and the surface treatment significantly influenced the SBS values. In Method 3, as the SBS values increased, the coefficients of variation decreased and the Weibull parameters increased. The AP groups showed the highest SBS in all of the test methods. Only in Method 3 did the P group show a higher SBS than the A group. Conclusions. The μSBS test was more sensitive to differentiating the effects of surface treatment methods than the conventional SBS tests. Primer conditioning was a stronger contributing factor for the resin bond to zirconia ceramic than was airborne-particle abrasion.
- Studies of genes involved in craniofacial development and tumorigenesis: FGF3 contributes to isolated oral clefts and may interact with PAX9. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Apr 4.
Abstract Objective. Previous studies suggest individuals born with oral clefts and their families have a higher susceptibility for cancer, which raises the hypothesis that these two conditions share common molecular pathways. This study evaluated the association between oral clefts and polymorphisms in genes that play a role in craniofacial and tumor development. Materials and methods. Four hundred and ninety-seven subjects born with oral clefts and 823 unaffected subjects were recruited. Twenty-nine markers in 13 genes were genotyped by the Taqman method. Chi-square was used to compare allele and genotype frequencies. Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was used and the established alpha was 0.0003. This study also used logistic regression to test if genetic variants were associated with oral clefts using positive family history of cancer and age as covariates. Results. There was no association between family history of cancer and oral clefts (p = 0.51). None of the 1320 study participants had a diagnosis of cancer at the time of participation in the study. The marker rs4980700 in FGF3 was associated with oral clefts (p = 0.0002). Logistic regression analysis also provided evidence for gene-gene interaction between FGF3 (rs4980700) and PAX9 (rs2073242), increasing the risk for isolated oral clefts (p = 0.0003). Conclusion. FGF3 is associated with oral clefts and may interact with PAX9.
- Characterization of the bone matrix and its contribution to tooth loss in human cadaveric mandibles. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Apr 3.
Abstract Objective. It is uncertain as to what extent the major bone matrix constituents, mineral and collagen, show inter-individual variation and dependence on age and sex in jawbones. The purpose of this study was to clarify this uncertainty using cadaveric mandibles and investigate the association of bone matrix with the number of existing teeth. Materials and methods. Cortical bone samples (1 × 1 cm) collected from the mental of 48 cadaveric mandibles (27 men and 21 women; age range = 56-93 years and 63-103 years, respectively) were used to quantify three bone matrix indices: mineral content, collagen content and extent of lysine hydroxylation of collagen. Associations with age and comparisons by sex were evaluated based on bone matrix indices and the numbers of existing teeth. The numbers of existing teeth were compared between the groups showing low and high bone matrix index values. Results. A great amount of inter-individual variation was seen in all bone matrix indices. No bone matrix indices were associated with age, while the number of existing teeth was negatively associated with age. The bone matrix indices and number of existing teeth did not differ by sex. The number of existing teeth was nearly twice as high in the group showing high collagen content as in the low collagen group; however, an analysis of covariance showed a significant inter-group difference not from bone matrix indices, but rather from age. Interestingly, in comparison to femoral collagen, mandibular collagen showed lower lysine hydroxylation, which can represent an aspect of bone quality. Conclusions. Mandibular bone matrix shows great inter-individual variation and is independent of age and sex, but did not show as strong a relationship with tooth loss as age. Even so, mandibular collagen may represent a unique characteristic of bone matrix and deserves to be further investigated.
- Orofacial esthetics and dental anxiety: Associations with oral and psychological health. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Mar 27.
Abstract Objective. Severe dental anxiety (DA) is associated with both oral health and psychosocial consequences in what has been described as a vicious circle of DA. The aim of this study was to investigate self-rated orofacial esthetics in patients with DA and its relationship to psychological and oral health. Materials and methods. A consecutive sample of 152 adult patients who were referred or self-referred to a specialized dental anxiety clinic filled out the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) as well as measurements on DA, self-rated oral health and general anxiety and depression. Clinical measures of dental status were also obtained. Results. Compared with the general population, patients with DA had lower ratings of satisfaction on all aspects of their orofacial esthetics, which included the teeth, gingiva, mouth and face, as well as a global orofacial assessment. Furthermore, the perception of the orofacial appearance was related both to dental status and self-rated oral health, as well as to general anxiety and depression. The level of dissatisfaction with the orofacial appearance was similar for both genders, but women reported more regular dental care and better dental status. Conclusions. The results of this study clearly show less satisfaction with dental and facial appearance in patients with DA, and that the self-rating of orofacial esthetics is related to both oral and psychological health. The OES can be used to assess orofacial esthetics in patients with DA.
- Does caries risk assessment predict the incidence of caries for special needs patients requiring general anesthesia? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Mar 25.
Abstract Objectives. The aim of this study was to correlate the caries-related variables of special needs patients to the incidence of new caries. Materials and methods. Data for socio-demographic information and dental and general health status were obtained from 110 patients treated under general anesthesia because of their insufficient co-operation. The Cariogram program was used for risk assessment and other caries-related variables were also analyzed. Within a defined follow-up period (16.3 ± 9.5 months), 64 patients received dental examinations to assess newly developed caries. Results. At baseline, the mean (SD) values of the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth) and DT (decayed teeth) for the total patients were 9.2 (6.5) and 5.8 (5.3), respectively. During the follow-up period, new caries occurred in 48.4% of the patients and the mean value (SD) of the increased DMFT (iDMFT) was 2.1 (4.2). The patients with a higher increment of caries (iDMFT ≥3) showed significantly different caries risk profiles compared to the other patients (iDMFT <2) (p < 0.05). Close correlations existed between the caries increment and several caries-related variables; baseline DMFT, insufficient self-tooth-brushing and malocclusion were greatly associated with new caries development. Conclusions. Caries risk assessment could predict the incidence of future caries in hospital-based dentistry. Past caries experience and inadequate oral hygiene maintenance were largely related to caries development in special needs patients.
- Is there a trend of decreasing prevalence of TMD-related symptoms with ageing among the elderly? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Mar 25.
Abstract Objective. Older adults have not been studied as much as younger ones regarding prevalence of TMD-related symptoms. The aim was to assess the prevalence of TMD-related symptoms in two population samples, 70 and 80 years old. Materials and methods. Identical questionnaires were in 2012 sent to all subjects born in 1932 and 1942 living in two Swedish counties. The response rate was 70.1%, resulting in samples of 5697 70- and 2922 80-year-old subjects. The questionnaire comprised 53 questions. Answers to questions on problems regarding TMD-related symptoms and awareness of bruxism were analysed. Results. Twelve per cent of the women and 7% of the men in the 70-year-old group reported some, rather great or severe problems regarding TMD pain. In the 80-year-olds the prevalence was 8% and 7%, respectively. Subjects who had problems with TMJ sounds reported difficulty to open the jaw wide 6-times and TMJ pain 10-13-times more frequently than subjects without such problems. Changes of taste and awareness of bruxism were the only variables significantly associated with TMD symptoms in both age groups. Number of teeth was not significantly associated with any of the TMD-related symptoms. Conclusions. Most of the elderly subjects had no severe problems with TMD-related symptoms, but 12% of the 70-year-old women reported some, rather great or severe problems. The marked gender difference at age 70 had disappeared in the 80-year-old group. The prevalence was lower among the 80- compared with the 70-year-old subjects of both sexes. The results support the comorbidity between TMD-related symptoms and general health problems.