Acta Odontol Scand [journal]
- Comparison of three different options for immediate treatment of painful temporomandibular disorders: a randomized, controlled pilot trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Jul 13.:1-7.
The purpose of this study was to compare the short-term effectiveness of three different types of immediate, non-pharmacological intervention for alleviation of the painful symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD).Thirty-six patients (mean age 41.6 ± 16.7 years, 25 females) diagnosed with non-dysfunctional painful TMD received counselling and subsequently were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: patients in Group A received prefabricated oral splints with water-filled elastic pads (Aqualizer(®)), those in Group B were provided with vacuum-formed co-polyester oral splints and those in Group C were given appointments to receive Michigan-type hard splints. Clinical examination was conducted, at baseline and after 2 weeks, by use of the RDC/TMD. Current pain intensity was determined by evaluation of graded chronic pain status (GCPS) on a numerical rating scale (NRS). Active maximum mouth opening without pain (AMMOP) was also measured. Paired sample t-tests and one-way analysis of variance with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05 were conducted.After 2 weeks, overall mean current pain was reduced by 41.95% (p < 0.001). Current pain reduction was significant for Group B (66.6%, p < 0.001) but not for Groups A (37.88%, p = 0.56) and C (22.29%, p = 0.26). After 2 weeks, current pain level for Group B was significantly lower than that for Group C (p = 0.041). Overall, there was a statistically significant increase of AMMOP (p = 0.01).All therapeutic options were pain-reducing. The results from this study suggest that cost-effective and time-effective intervention of counselling combined with use of a vacuum-formed splint is a favourable option for initial, short-term treatment of painful TMD.
- Different methods for subgingival application of chlorhexidine in the treatment of patients with chronic periodontitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Jul 13.:1-6.
The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical efficacy of different chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) preparations applied subgingivally as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP).A total of 120 periodontal pockets was included in this randomized, controlled, split mouth designed study. According to protocols used in treatment, periodontal pockets were assigned to experimental and control groups as follows: CHX solution as an addition to SRP versus control SRP group; CHX gel as an addition to SRP versus control SRP; CHX chip as an addition to SRP versus control SRP group. Following clinical parameters were recorded at baseline, one and three months after the baseline: plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding index (BI) and clinical attachment level (CAL).The most significant improvements were found concerning PI in CHX solution with SRP and CHX gel with SRP groups over controls at one month recall, as well as concerning BI and PPD in CHX chip with SRP group over SRP alone at three-month recall.Results of this study favour combination therapy using CHX chip as an adjunct to SRP due to greater improvements in BI and PPD compared to those obtained by SRP alone in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.
- Effects of audiovisual distraction on children's behaviour during dental treatment: a randomized controlled clinical trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Jul 13.:1-8.
Dental anxiety leads to undesirable distresses such as avoidance of dental treatment and increase stress among caregivers that consequently affect the treatment quality. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effectiveness of viewing videotaped cartoons using an eyeglass system (i-theatre™) as an audiovisual (AV) distraction technique on behaviour and anxiety in children receiving dental restorative treatment.Fifty-six consecutive children patients who presented for treatment and met inclusion criteria were included and randomly divided into two groups; a control group without distraction (CTR-group) and a distraction-group (AV-group). Three dental treatment visits were provided for each patient. Anxiety and cooperative behaviour were assessed with the Facial Image Scale (FIS) and the Modified Venham's clinical ratings of anxiety and cooperative behaviour scale (MVARS). The vital signs, blood pressure and pulse were also taken.The AV-group showed significantly lower MVARS scores than the CTR-group (p = 0.029), and the scores decreased significantly during treatment in the AV-group (p = 0.04). Further, the pulse rate was significantly increased in the CTR-group during injection with local anaesthesia (p = 0.02), but not in the AV-group.AV distraction seems to be an effective method in reducing fear and anxiety in children during dental treatment. Further, children who used eyeglass goggle display as a distraction tool during dental treatment reported not only less anxiety than control groups but also showed more positive responses after injection with local anaesthesia. Hence, AV-distraction seems to be a useful tool to decrease the distress and dental anxiety during dental treatment.
- Career anchors of dentist leaders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Jul 8.:1-7.
The work of a health care leader is demanding; in order to cope, leaders need motivation and support. The occurrence of intrinsic factors called career anchors (combination of one's competence, motives and values) could be a contributing factor in dentist leaders' career decisions. The aim of our study was to identify dentist leaders' career anchors and their association to dentist leaders' retention or turnover of the leadership position.Materials were gathered in 2014 via an electronic questionnaire from 156 current (Leaders) or former (Leavers) Finnish dentist leaders. Career anchor evaluation was conducted by the questionnaire and scoring-table taken from Edgar Schein's Career Anchors Self-Assessment. Both the most and the least important career anchors were detected by the highest and lowest scores and their occurrence reported as percentages. Associations between career anchor scores and tendency to stay were analyzed with logistic regression.'Technical/Functional Competence' and 'Lifestyle' were most frequently reported as the most important and 'Entrepreneurial Creativity' and 'General Managerial Competence' as the least important career anchors. However, a higher level of 'General Managerial Competence' anchor was most significantly associated with staying in a leadership position. Instead, 'Pure Challenge' and 'Lifestyle' decreased the odds to stay.The knowledge of the important and essential career anchors of dentist leaders' and individuals' could perform crucial part in career choices and also in planning education, work opportunities and human resource policies promoting retention of dentist leaders and probably also other health care leaders.
- Changes in division of labour and tasks within public dentistry: relationship to employees work demands, health and work ability. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Jul 8.:1-9.
By 2023, fewer dentists are expected in Sweden, at the same time as the demand for dental care is expected to increase. Older people, in particular, are expected to require more dental health than previous generations. To meet this demand, the public sector dentistry in Sweden is moving towards changes in division of labour among dental professionals, including dentists, dental hygienists and dental nurses. However, the impact of this reallocation on the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of employees is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare workplaces with an equal or larger proportion of dental hygienists than dentists (HDH) with workplaces with a larger proportion of dentists than dental hygienists (HD) on the physical and psychosocial work load, musculoskeletal and psychosomatic disorders and sickness presence.A total of 298 persons employed in the Public Dental Service in a Swedish County Council participated in this study.The medium large clinics HDH reported 85% of employee's with considerably more high psychosocial demands compared to employees in medium HD (53%) and large HD (57%). Employees in medium large clinics HDH also reported sleep problems due to work (25%) compared with employees in medium large clinics HD (6%), large clinics HD (11%) and small clinics HDH (3%). Clinic size does not seem to influence the outcome of the HD and HD clinics to any great extent. Of all employees, about 94-100% reported high precision demands and 78-91% poor work postures.
- Self-reported temporomandibular disorder symptoms and severity of malocclusion in prospective orthognathic-surgical patients. [Journal Article]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Aug; 74(6):466-70.
The objective of this study is to analyze the association between self-reported symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and the severity of malocclusion in prospective orthognathic-surgical patients.The subjects consisted of 50 consecutive patients (13 males and 37 females) referred to two university clinics for assessment of orthodontic-surgical treatment need. Data considering self-reported TMD symptoms were gathered using a semi-structured diary. At the first appointment, all patients rated the importance of treatment (on a scale of 1-10) and assessed self-perceived dental appearance using a VAS scale. The scale was anchored with photographs 1 and 10 from the Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Study models were assessed by an experienced orthodontic specialist using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index and the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON). Association between the PAR and ICON scores and the number of reported symptoms was analyzed statistically.Seventy-one percent of patients reported experiencing TMD symptoms. The most prevalent symptoms were pain in the head and/or neck region and fatigue in the TMJ region. The number of symptoms was highest in the morning. Ninety percent of males and 86% of females rated the importance of treatment as high; males experiencing TMD symptoms tended to rate surgery as more important compared with males with no symptoms (p = 0.056).In this sample, the results cannot unambiguously confirm an association between self-reported symptoms of TMD and objectively defined severity of malocclusion.
- Treatment of temporomandibular disorders - knowledge, attitudes and clinical experience among general practising dentists in Sweden. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Jun 21.:1-6.
The aim of the study was to investigate the self-perceived level of knowledge, attitudes and clinical experience in treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) among general practising dentists (GPDs).A web-based questionnaire was sent to all GPDs in the public dental health service in the County of Uppsala in 2010 (n = 128) and 2014 (n = 113). The GPDs were asked to answer questions in the following categories: Demographic information, Quality assurance, Clinical experience and treatment, Need for specialist resources in the field of TMD and Attitudes. Between the two questionnaires, the GPDs were offered TMD education and an examination template including three TMD questions was introduced in the computer case files. The results were also compared with a previous questionnaire from 2001.The response rate was 71% (2010) and 73% (2014). The majority of the GPDs were women (70% in 2010 and 72% in 2014). The reported frequency of taking a case history of facial pain and headache increased between 2010 and 2014. In 2014, the GPDs were more secure and reported higher frequency of good clinical routines in treatment with jaw exercises and pharmacological intervention compared to 2001. Interocclusal appliance was the treatment with which most dentists felt confident and reported good clinical routines.The GPDs felt more insecure concerning TMD diagnostics, therapy decisions and treatment in children/adolescents compared to adults. There is a high need for orofacial pain/TMD specialists and a majority of the GPDs wants the specialists to offer continuing education in TMD.
- Establishment and maintenance of asepsis in endodontics - a review of the literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Jun 16.:1-5.
Successful endodontic treatment depends on effective measures to eliminate and prevent infection of root canals. Initially treatment should start with isolation and disinfection of the operating field. This review makes an inventory of the available knowledge regarding its establishment and maintenance.A literature search was conducted in the PubMed database in order to identify clinical trials examining disinfection or unintentional contamination of the endodontic operative field. A list of 115 articles was obtained and screened. Five relevant articles were identified. These articles were read in full text. The reference lists from these articles were checked manually for additional studies and three studies were obtained. A total of eight articles met the inclusion criteria.There was a great variety in terms of aim, method, and material of the included studies. None could prove a totally reliable aseptic operative field and not one chemical, or combination of chemicals, were found in more than one study.No study documented complete asepsis following initial disinfection, and no study could document predictable maintenance of an established bacteria-free surface. Critical appraisal and standardization of the disinfection and aseptic procedures in endodontics are needed.
- Prevalence of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis and associated skeletal characteristics in an orthodontic patient population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Jun 16.:1-4.
This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis and associated skeletal characteristics in an orthodontic patient population.The records of the 1066 patients seeking orthodontic treatment were screened for maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (MLIA). The following data were recorded for each subject: age; gender; unilateral or bilateral agenesis of MLI and side. The lateral cephalogram of each subject with MLIA was digitally traced. The data were compared to age-matched control orthodontic patients with skeletal Class I.The prevalence of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis was 4.9% (52 patients) in which 63.5% were females. There was a significant difference between MLIA patients and controls in sagittal relationships (ANB, Wits, AB plane, angle of convexity and Co-A/Co-Gn differential analyses) p < 0.05.Patients with maxillary lateral incisor agenesis showed a significant tendency for skeletal Class III compared with the Class I control. This could be attributed to maxillary hypoplasia/retrognathia.
- Prevalence among adolescents in Bergen, Western Norway, of temporomandibular disorders according to the DC/TMD criteria and examination protocol. [Journal Article]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Aug; 74(6):449-55.
The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) among adolescents and to contrast the prevalence of TMD according to the DC/TMD clinical examination protocol versus the prevalence of pain related to TMD according to two screening questions.Two hundred and ten adolescents living in the county of Bergen, Norway, were offered an additional examination for TMD in connection with their regular dental check-up appointment. Five dental clinics were selected with differing socio-economic patient populations, as reflected by stratification of average levels of DMFT, and an equal number of girls and boys were invited to participate. The participants answered two screening questions for pain related to TMD followed by a clinical examination according to the DC/TMD protocol by five calibrated examiners.Acceptable calibration results were obtained. Approximately 80% of eligible participants consented to partake. According to the criteria of DC/TMD, the prevalence of TMD among the study participants was 11.9%, with a peak at 16 years of age. According to the self-reported screening questions for pain related to TMD, 7.2% responded positively. Only seven participants with a TMD diagnosis established according to the DC/TMD clinical examination protocol reported also pain related to TMD based on answering the two screening questions.The prevalence of TMD is higher for girls than for boys and the prevalence of TMD established according to the DC/TMD criteria was higher than the prevalence of pain related to TMD estimated by use of two screening questions for self-reported pain.