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Acta Odontol Scand [journal]
- Consecutive unsplinted implant-supported restorations to replace lost multiple adjacent posterior teeth: A 4-year prospective cohort study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Nov 25.:1-6.
Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the various events occurring in unsplinted implant restoration in posterior jaws during a period of 4 years. Materials and methods. From August 2008 to April 2009, eight volunteers (three men and five women) who had two or more consecutively missing teeth received 20 implants in posterior maxillae and mandibles. Unsplinted single crowns were delivered to each implant. For the 4-year follow-up periods, patients were enrolled in a maintenance schedule at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months. The data, including a questionnaire, radiography, mobility and probing were recorded on regular check-ups. Results. A total of 20 implants in eight patients were followed up for 48 months, showing a 100% survival rate. Mean marginal bone loss around implants was 0.26 mm. Statistical analysis revealed insignificant correlation between metal-ceramic and zirconia-ceramic crowns and among implant lengths (8.5 mm, 10 mm and 11.5 mm). Mean probing depths were similar or insignificantly different, regardless of the materials used or length of implants. The most frequent complications, in decreasing order, were food impaction (65%) and porcelain chipping (45%), sensitivity (25%), pain (20%) and loose contact (15%). Compared with metal-ceramic crowns, zirconia-ceramic crowns showed more unfavorable cases of porcelain chipping (p = 0.017), pain (p = 0.007) and loose contact with an adjacent crown (p = 0.031). Conclusions. Within the limits of the sample size, this study showed that unsplinted implant-supported single restorations to replace consecutive posterior missing teeth may function well.
- White spot lesions after orthodontic treatment assessed by clinical photographs and by quantitative light-induced fluorescence imaging; a retrospective study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Nov 25.:1-6.
Abstract Objective. White spot lesions (WSL) are an important side-effect of orthodontic multi-bracket (MB) treatment. Standardized monitoring of such WSL may help in caries management. Materials and methods. In this retrospective study the discriminatory power of caries assessment on routine digital oral photographs was compared to quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) imaging in monitoring WSL development after debonding of orthodontic appliances. Oral and QLF photographs captured directly after debond (T1) and 1 year thereafter (T2) of 51 subjects, treated with full MB orthodontic appliances were used. Oral photographs were assessed by use of The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) at both time points independently and by side-by-side comparison to assess visual transition (VT). QLF photographs were categorized based on integrated fluorescence loss at T1 and T2. Results. At T1 433 and 384 lesions on 918 buccal surfaces were detected using ICDAS and QLF, respectively. For both methods these numbers were reduced at T2. Changes within ICDAS scores were recorded by VT and showed mainly lesion improvement within ICDAS score 2. Conclusion. The oral and QLF photographs both showed regression of WSL after debonding of MB orthodontic appliances. The VT evaluation was found to have higher discriminatory power in comparison to ICDAS.
- How do dentists use CBCT in dental clinics? A Norwegian nationwide survey. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Nov 21.:1-7.
Abstract Objectives. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was introduced to Norwegian dental clinics in 2007. The aim of the study was to investigate how dental clinics use this imaging modality, including factors related to workflow and image quality, and to evaluate dentists' opinions on and experiences of using it. Materials and methods. A web-based 59-item questionnaire regarding the clinical use of CBCT was sent to all 39 CBCT clinics in Norway. Results. Twenty-nine clinics (74%) responded. Most respondents (93%) were from clinics with more than one dentist and 83% had at least one specialist. All clinics had digital intraoral x-ray receptors and all but one had panoramic imaging. The most common indications for CBCT were implant treatment planning (34% of all clinics) and localization of impacted teeth (43% of specialist clinics). Seventy-two per cent of clinics reported an average of four or fewer CBCT examinations each week and 83% of respondents were subjectively satisfied with the image quality. The most commonly used enhancement functions were contrast (97%), brightness (90%) and zoom (86%). Conclusions. The Norwegian CBCT clinics surveyed were fully digitized and had multiple dentists. Periodontists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons were the most frequent specialties represented in the clinics. Clinics with only dental specialists performed more CBCT examinations/week than clinics with general practitioners or both general practitioners and specialists. The most common indications for CBCT examinations were related to treatment planning. This study found some challenges related to image quality and communication within the radiological team.
- Smoking and attitudes towards it and its cessation among dental students in Latvia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Nov 21.:1-6.
Abstract Background. The prevalence of smoking is higher in Latvia than in most EU countries. This study aimed to determine the level of knowledge of dental students in Latvia about the effects of smoking on oral health and their attitudes toward smoking and its cessation. Methods. A cross-sectional survey among all the dental students in Latvia was conducted in 2011. Students at the Riga Stradins University were asked to participate in this anonymous, voluntary survey. The questionnaire included items concerned with the students' own smoking habits, their knowledge of smoking as an addiction and its health effects and their attitudes towards its prevention and cessation in a dental setting. The response rate was 87% (173/200). The Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for the statistical analyses. Results. About one quarter of the students (24%) were daily or occasional smokers and almost half of the male students (46%) had smoked at least 100-times in their lifetime. The students revealed a lack of knowledge about the addictive nature of smoking, in that about half of the students did not consider smoking physically or socially addictive. About one fifth (21.4%) didn't consider environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) harmful to one's health. Although the students' awareness of smoking improved during their studies, the most significant factor related to their knowledge was their own smoking history (OR = 2.7; p = 0.021). Conclusions. Smoking was frequent among undergraduate dental students and they lacked knowledge of its addictiveness. More emphasis ought to be placed on education with regard to smoking and on cessation services.
- Oral health-related quality-of-life in Swedish children before and after dental treatment under general anesthesia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Nov 17.:1-7.
Abstract Objective. This study evaluated oral health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) in children and families before and after dental treatment under general anesthesia because of severe caries or molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH). Materials and methods. A consecutive sample of the parents/caregivers of children (3-14 years) in need of treatment under general anesthesia participated in the study. The children were divided into two groups: 3-6 years and 7-14 years. The 49-item questionnaire that was administered before and after general anesthesia comprised the Child Oral Health Quality of Life-components of the Parental-Caregivers Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ), the Family Impact Scale (FIS) and two global questions concerning oral health and general well-being. The P-CPQ domains were Oral symptoms, Functional limitations, Emotional well-being and Social well-being. The FIS items assessed impact on family life. Results. In both age groups, a significant decrease (p < 0.001) occurred in overall P-CPQ and the Oral symptoms, Functional limitations and Emotional limitations domains of the P-CPQ. Mean values for the Social well-being domain decreased significantly in the older (p < 0.05) but not the younger age group. Mean values for FIS decreased significantly in the younger (p < 0.001) and the older (p < 0.05) age groups. Conclusions. Dental treatment of severe caries or MIH, performed under general anesthesia, had an immediate effect on the oral health-related quality-of-life in the children in this study and a positive impact on the family situation.
- Extra- and intra-cranial arterial calcifications in adults depicted as incidental findings on cone beam CT images. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Nov 11.:1-8.
Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate, retrospectively, the gender- and age-related prevalence of incidentally found calcifications, depicted within the course of the extra- and intra-cranial portion of internal carotid artery (ICA), in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) examinations in adults, and to assess their clinical significance. Materials and methods. Out of a pull of 700 CBCT examinations a total of 484 CBCT scans of adult patients were finally selected according to a set of pre-defined criteria. These were evaluated for arterial calcifications presence within the ICAs course according to gender and age criteria. Results. In total, 492 calcifications were detected: 211 (42.88%) extra-cranial and 281 (57.11%) intra-cranial. Those were recorded in 150 scans (30.99%) and 161 scans (33.26%), respectively. Calcifications, with either extra- or intra-cranial allocation, were found more frequent in males than in females (all p-values < 0.05); also patients who presented with positive findings were older than those without findings (all p-values < 0.05). Furthermore, calcification presence with either extra- or intra-cranial allocation increases with age (all p-values < 0.05). Conclusion. Significant calcification frequencies were found within the ICA's course, in CBCT scans. Moreover, an increased incidence of either extra- or intra-cranial presence of these depictions and its relation to age and gender was documented.
- Comparison of mandibular first molar mesial root canal morphology using micro-computed tomography and clearing technique. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Nov 11.:1-6.
Abstract Objective. Micro-computed tomography (MCT) with alternative image reformatting techniques shows complex and detailed root canal anatomy. This study compared two-dimensional (2D) and 3D MCT image reformatting with standard tooth clearing for studying mandibular first molar mesial root canal morphology. Materials and methods. Extracted human mandibular first molar mesial roots (n = 31) were scanned by MCT (Skyscan 1172). 2D thin-slab minimum intensity projection (TS-MinIP) and 3D volume rendered images were constructed. The same teeth were then processed by clearing and staining. For each root, images obtained from clearing, 2D, 3D and combined 2D and 3D techniques were examined independently by four endodontists and categorized according to Vertucci's classification. Fine anatomical structures such as accessory canals, intercanal communications and loops were also identified. Results. Agreement among the four techniques for Vertucci's classification was 45.2% (14/31). The most frequent were Vertucci's type IV and then type II, although many had complex configurations that were non-classifiable. Generally, complex canal systems were more clearly visible in MCT images than with standard clearing and staining. Fine anatomical structures such as intercanal communications, accessory canals and loops were mostly detected with a combination of 2D TS-MinIP and 3D volume-rendering MCT images. Conclusions. Canal configurations and fine anatomic structures were more clearly observed in the combined 2D and 3D MCT images than the clearing technique. The frequency of non-classifiable configurations demonstrated the complexity of mandibular first molar mesial root canal anatomy.
- Does early establishment of favorable oral health behavior influence caries experience at age 5 years? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Nov 11.:1-6.
Abstract Objective. The purpose was to study associations between tooth brushing frequency, use of fluoride lozenges and consumption of sugary drinks at 1.5 years of age and having caries experience at 5 years of age. Methods. This study was based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and by the Public Dental Services. A total of 1095 children were followed from pregnancy to the age of 5 years. Questionnaires regarding oral health behavior were completed by the parents at 1.5 and 5 years of age. Clinical and radiographic examination of the children was performed at the age of 5 years. Results. In multiple logistic regression, having caries experience at 5 years of age was associated with; at 1.5 years of age having the teeth brushed less than twice daily (OR = 2.1, CI = 1.3-3.6) and being offered sugary drinks at least once a week (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.1-2.9) when controlled for family characteristics and oral health behavior at 5 years of age. Conclusions. Tooth brushing frequency and consumption of sugary drinks in early childhood were related to caries development during pre-school age, independent of family characteristics and oral health behavior at 5 years of age. The results indicate that early established habits regarding tooth brushing and consumption of sugary drinks have long-term effects on caries development. Parents encountering difficulties in establishing favorable oral health behavior in children's first years of life should receive special attention from health personnel.
- An in vivo comparison of internal bacterial colonization in two dental implant systems: Identification of a pathogenic reservoir. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Nov 11.:1-7.
Abstract Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare internal bacterial colonization in two implant systems, one screw root form (SRF) with an external hexagon connection and one plateau root form (PRF) with a Morse taper internal connection. Materials and methods. Thirty-two implants; 12 SRF and 20 PRF, were sampled in 15 patients. All implants had been in function for at least 6 months prior to sampling. The implant restoration was removed and 10 µl of sterile saline was introduced into the implant well via a sterile glass syringe. The saline was drawn back up and transferred to the laboratory for microbiological analysis. The number of aerobic and anaerobic colony forming units per millilitre was determined and the dominant micro-organism in each sample was identified by 16s rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Results. There was a significant difference between bleeding on probing around the SRF implants (3%) and the PRF implants (28%) (p = 0.0496). Bacterial colonization was identified at 11 SRF and 19 PRF implants. The numbers of anaerobic bacteria recovered from PRF implants was significantly higher than that from SRF implants (p = 0.0002). Streptococcus species and Enterococcus faecalis were found to dominate. Conclusions. This in vivo study demonstrated bacterial colonization in both types of implant systems, irrespective of the type of connection. Significantly greater anaerobic counts were found in the Morse taper internal connection implants.
- Genome-wide gene expression profiles of dental follicle stem cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Nov 7.:1-8.
Abstract Objective. Dental stem cells (SCs) will be increasingly used for bone regeneration in the future. Recently, dental follicle cells (DFCs) from retained human third molars have been isolated and characterized as osteogenic progenitors. Although these results are promising for regenerative dentistry, molecular processes during osteogenic differentiation are not yet well understood. Materials and methods. This study compared DFCs before and during osteogenic differentiation. ALP activity was measured and cells were stained with alizarin red. Real-time RT-PCRs for osteogenic markers were done. The genome-wide expression profile was evaluated using a microarray. Results. DFCs showed strong mineralization and increased expression of osteogenic marker genes during osteogenic differentiation. A microarray analysis showed regulated genes before and in the process of osteogenic differentiation (day 7). Several regulated genes in DFCs were associated with skeletal development. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of factors associated with dental follicle osteogenic differentiation. Osteogenic differentiation affected expression levels of the transcriptional regulators FOXC2 and ZNF219. Conclusion. In conclusion, the results yielded new objectives for further studies on transcription factors like FOXC2 or ETV1 and their role in dental SCs during osteogenic differentiation.