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Acta Odontol Scand [journal]
- Quantitative microleakage analysis of endodontic temporary filling materials using a glucose penetration model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Sep 25.:1-7.
Abstract Objective. The purpose of this study was to analyze the sealing ability of different temporary endodontic materials over a 6-week period using a glucose penetration model. Materials and methods. Standardized holes were formed on 48 dentin discs from human premolars. The thicknesses of the specimens were distributed evenly to 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm. Prepared dentin specimens were randomly assigned into six groups (n = 7) and the holes in the dentin specimens were filled with two kinds of temporary filling materials as per the manufacturers' instructions as follows: Caviton (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm and IRM (Dentsply International Inc., Milford, DE) 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm. The remaining specimens were used as positive and negative controls and all specimens underwent thermocycling (1000; 5-55°C). The sealing ability of all samples was evaluated using the leakage model for glucose. The samples were analyzed by a spectrophotometer in quantitative glucose microleakage test over a period of 6 weeks. As a statistical inference, a mixed effect analysis was applied to analyze serial measurements over time. Results. The Caviton groups showed less glucose penetration in comparison with the IRM groups. The Caviton 4 mm group demonstrated relatively low glucose leakage over the test period. High glucose leakage was detected throughout the test period in all IRM groups. The glucose leakage level increased after 1 week in the Caviton 2 mm group and after 4 weeks in the Caviton 3 mm and 4 mm groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Caviton had better sealing ability than IRM in the glucose penetration model during 6 weeks. Temporary filling of Caviton to at least 3 mm in thickness is necessary and temporary filling periods should not exceed 4 weeks.
- Trauma from instrumentation after non-surgical periodontal treatment with ultrasonic scalers and Nd:YAG laser. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Sep 25.:1-6.
Abstract Objective. Periodontal therapies aimed at altering the progression of periodontal diseases must include meticulous mechanical debridement during both the non-surgical and the surgical phases of periodontal treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the immediate effect of trauma from instrumentation on clinical attachment level after non-surgical periodontal treatment with ultrasonic scalers and a Nd:YAG laser. Materials and methods. Twenty-four patients with untreated chronic periodontitis, presenting probing depths of 4-6 mm on anterior teeth, upper and lower, were entered into the study. The selected teeth were probed with a pressure-controlled probe, guided by stents. Each quadrant was randomly allocated in a split-mouth design either to treatment with Nd:YAG laser using an energy of 1W, 100mj, 1064nm (test group) or to periodontal treatment using ultrasonic scalers (control group). Clinical parameters, including plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and probing attachment level (PAL) were acquired prior to and immediately after treatment. Results. Statistical analysis demonstrated no differences between groups at baseline for all parameters (p > 0.05). Immediately after treatment, the control group showed a greater PAL loss than the test group (p < 0.05). For the control group, there were statistically significant differences between PAL immediately before and after treatment (p < 0.05), but not test group (p > 0.05). Conclusions. Within the limits of the present study, it may be concluded that non-surgical periodontal treatment with ultrasonic scalers causes a mean immediate attachment loss of 0.68 mm and that a Nd:YAG laser seems to reduce significantly the trauma the instrumentation produced.
- Oral health and apraxia among institutionalized elderly people-A pilot study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Sep 25.:1-6.
Abstract Objective. Poor oral hygiene and dental health are very common among the institutionalized elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of apraxia with oral hygiene and/or health. Materials and methods. Ninety-two residents of 13 long-term care homes in southwest Germany participated in the study. For each participant, ideomotor apraxia scoring (AS) was conducted and demographic variables were collected. Participants underwent a comprehensive dental examination to assess the oral health indices gingival bleeding index (GBI), community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) and denture hygiene index (DHI). Statistical comparison of dental indices among apraxic and non-apraxic individuals (cut-off < 45) was performed by use of t-tests. In addition, linear regression models were constructed with the dental indices as dependent variables. Each model was fitted with the dichotomized variable AS (pathologic or healthy) and adjusted for age and sex. Results. Mean (SD) GBI of 48.5 (25.9), CPITN of 2.9 (0.7) and DHI of 82.6 (14.6) were observed among the participants. Statistical analysis revealed AS was significantly associated with all oral health indicators (p < 0.05). Linear regression models showed apraxia is a predictor of GBI (p = 0.002) and CPITN (p = 0.027), but not of denture hygiene (p = 0.916). Conclusions. Although this pilot investigation has limitations, the results suggest the presence of apraxia should be considered when planning oral healthcare strategies. Further research with larger samples is encouraged to confirm these relationships.
- Interleukin 1β (+3954, -511 and -31) polymorphism in chronic periodontitis patients from North India. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Sep 25.:1-5.
Abstract Objective. Several studies have implicated the role of interleukin-1 in various chronic diseases including periodontitis. The present study was carried out with an aim to evaluate the role of interleukin 1β polymorphisms, namely +3954C/T, -511C/T and -31T/C, in the development of chronic periodontitis. Materials and methods. Twenty-nine chronic periodontitis patients and 31 healthy controls of North Indian origin from Chhattisgarh were recruited for the study. The genotypes for the three variants were determined using the PCR-RFLP technique and the strength of association between genotypes and periodontitis was determined by odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) and chi-square analysis. Results. Analysis for the +3954 allelic and genotypic frequencies of the polymorphism revealed a significant difference in the CT genotype between periodontitits patients and controls (p = 0.03). A significant difference was also observed in the allelic frequencies between the two groups (p = 0.02). For the -511 site, TT genotype revealed a significant association with the disease (p = 0.01). A significant association was also found following the co-dominant model (p = 0.007). However, the -31 polymorphism revealed no significant difference between patients and controls. Conclusions. In conclusion, the present study suggests a strong association of the TT genotype of -511 and CT genotype of +3954 variant of interleukin 1β with chronic periodontitis. However, the -31 variant did not show a significant association with the disease.
- The effect of residual calcium hydroxide on the accuracy of a contemporary electronic apex locator. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Sep 23.:1-5.
Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of residual calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] on the accuracy of an electronic apex locator (EAL). Materials and methods. Working lengths (WLs) of 56 extracted maxillary incisors were determined initially by two different methods. The first method used the 'APEX' reading of the EAL as a reference point, 0.5 mm was subtracted and recorded as WL0. The second method used the '0.5' reading and the score was recorded as WL0.5 without subtraction. The roots were prepared to WL0 and divided randomly into three experimental groups (n = 16) (1 mm in group A, 2 mm in group B and 4 mm in group C) and a control (n = 8). Specimens in all experimental groups were filled with Ca(OH)2 paste. Following its removal, WLs were re-determined with the same methods. Results. In group C, pre/post WLs were significantly different (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between the other experimental groups and the control group. Conclusion. Accuracy of EAL decreased proportionally with the amount of paste remaining at the ±0.5-mm tolerance level. Ca(OH)2 paste remnants may cause incorrect EAL readings.
- Apoptosis resistance-related ABCB5 and DNaseX (Apo10) expression in oral carcinogenesis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Sep 19.:1-7.
Abstract Background. Apoptosis resistance is a crucial factor for the carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods. Expression of apoptosis resistance-related ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB5 [subfamily B (MDR/TAP) member 5] and DNaseX (Apo10) were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n = 5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n = 11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n = 35), and OSCC specimen (n = 42) by immunohistochemistry. Results. Expression of ABCB5 and Apo10 were significantly increased in the carcinogenesis of OSCC compared with normal tissue. Compared with SIN I-III, ABCB5 expression was significantly decreased in OSCC. Apo10 expression did not significantly differ from OSCC compared with SIN I-III. Conclusions. This study provides the first evidence of the expression of ABCB5 and Apo10 in the multi-step carcinogenesis of OSCC. Overcoming drug resistance of ABCB5+ and Apo10+ cells in precursor lesions and tumors by natural compounds may act as sensitizers for apoptosis or could be useful for chemoprevention.
- Assessment of changing patterns of Le fort fracture lines using computed tomography scan: an observational study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Sep 17.:1-5.
Abstract Objectives. To assess the changing mid-face fracture patterns using a computed tomography scan. Methodology: Fifty patients with mid-face trauma requiring open reduction and fixation were studied using 1.6 mm axial, sagittal, coronal and 3D images. Images were evaluated clinically, intra-operatively and finally were compared with standard Le Fort lines. Results. The male population dominated the female at a ratio of 11.5:1. The majority of the mid-face fractures were seen in the age group of 21-30 years. Road traffic accident (78%) was the major etiological factor followed by work-related accidents (12%) and assaults (10%). The CT scan analysis included categorizing the patients into three groups: (1) Fracture patterns resembling Le Fort lines (24%); (2) Fracture patterns partially resembling Le Fort lines (56%); and (3) Fracture patterns that do not resemble Le Fort lines (20%). Conclusion. With the change in the velocity of wounding object, there is a change in the mid-face fracture patterns. The majority of the cases present as a variant of classical Le Fort fractures. Computed tomography is a valuable diagnostic tool in assessing the fractures of the mid-face. 2D images are more sensitive than 3D images. However, both the images are required in delivery of an optimal treatment plan.
- May caries-preventive fluoride regimes have an effect on dental erosive wear? An in situ study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Sep 16.:1-7.
Abstract Objective. High and low concentration NaF regimes have shown caries protective properties, but the preventive effect against erosive/abrasive wear is unclear. Aim. To measure the inhibiting effect on enamel wear of low and highly concentrated sodium fluoride (NaF) toothpastes and a stannous (SnF2) fluoride gel in a single-blind, randomized in situ study, using a White Light Interferometer. Materials and methods. Sixteen human molars were each divided into four specimens, mounted on acrylic mouth appliances and worn by eight volunteers for 9 days. Experimental procedures were performed in the laboratory. The enamel specimens were brushed every day with fluoride-free toothpaste. Treatments; group 1: no fluoride treatment (control), group 2: SnF2 gel 2500 ppm F (5 min) every third day, group 3: NaF toothpaste 5000 ppm F 5 min every third day and 2 min the other days, group 4: NaF toothpaste 1450 ppm F (2 min) every day. In order to mimic gastric reflux/vomiting, the specimens were etched with 0.01 M HCl for 2 min twice a day. Results. The mean step height (µm) for the control specimens was -32.9 (SD = 6.8). The mean values for the other groups were -22.2 (SD = 8.4) (group 2), -30.8 (SD = 7.8) (group 3) and -31.4 (SD = 7.7) (group 4). Compared with the control, the SnF2 treated specimens showed significantly lower wear. The NaF toothpastes gave no significant protective effect. Conclusions. Application of SnF2 gel every third day gave protection against erosive-abrasive challenges. Daily application of both low concentration and high concentration NaF toothpaste provided no protection.
- Clinical cavitation and radiographic lesion depth in proximal surfaces in an Indian population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Sep 15.:1-5.
Abstract Objectives. To assess the relationship between clinical cavitation and radiographic caries lesion depth in proximal surfaces of permanent posterior teeth in an Indian population. This study also assessed the clinical feasibility of applying 'western guidelines' to this population from the developing world. Materials and methods. Relationship between clinical cavitation and radiographic caries lesion depth in proximal surfaces in an Indian population was assessed. Proximal surfaces (n = 126) without restorations were examined on bitewing radiographs in patients with suspected caries and lesion depth was recorded by five observers. The radiographic scoring scale was 0 = sound; 1 = lesion in enamel; 2 = lesion in outer 1/3 of dentine and 3 = lesion in inner 2/3 of dentine. Orthodontic separators were placed interdentally and removed after 3 days, where surfaces were recorded as cavitated (yes/no) by two clinical validators (gold standard). Results. Enamel lesions were cavitated in 25.6-38.3%, outer dentinal lesions were cavitated in 83.3-100% and inner dentinal lesions were cavitated in 96.4-100% depending on observer and validator. On applying 'western guidelines' for treatment decision to the radiographic findings of lesion depth, 80-100% of the lesions observed in outer dentine would lead to a false (non-operative) treatment decision. Conclusions. Radiographic shallow carious lesions were often cavitated in this population. The threshold for cavitation in this study population is suggested to be set between enamel and outer dentine in contrast to western guidelines.
- Associations between craniomandibular disorders, sociodemographic factors and self-perceived general and oral health in an adult population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Sep 15.:1-12.
Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between pain in the craniomandibular region and jaw dysfunction, respectively, to sociodemographic factors and self-perceived general and oral health in a middle-aged and elderly population in Västerbotten County, Sweden. Materials and methods. Six hundred individuals, 35-, 50-, 65- and 75 years old, from inland and 600 individuals from coastal areas were randomly selected in 2002. Of these, 987 individuals completed a questionnaire and 779 participated in a clinical examination. Thirty-five- and 50-year-olds together constituted a middle-aged group and the rest an elderly group. Results. Among the middle-aged, craniomandibular pain was associated with impaired general health status, signs of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain were associated with female gender and living alone, jaw dysfunction symptoms were associated with university degree and chewing with caution; and signs of TMD dysfunction were associated with female gender and living in the more densely populated coastal region. Among the elderly, craniomandibular pain was more common among those living in the inland region, craniomandibular pain and signs of TMD pain were associated with impaired general health status, jaw dysfunction symptoms were associated with higher education level and self-perceived impaired general health and oral health; and signs of TMD dysfunction were associated with female gender and living in the coastal region. Dental status was not associated with craniomandibular pain. Conclusions. Socioeconomic factors and impaired general state of health were related to signs and symptoms indicative of CMD. These factors may influence demand for treatment among the affected.