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Acta medica Croatica [journal]
- [Long term survival patient on hemodialysis--case report]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Acta Med Croatica 2012 Oct.:81-4.
The mortality of chronic kidney disease patients is very high. Patients on chronic renal replacement therapy are also et very high mortality risk. Nevertheless, by the advance in renal replacement therapy the surveillance of these patients could be long with reasonable quality of life. The present a patient on renal replacement therapy for more than 38 years.Our patient was born in 1946. Twenty years later acute glomerulonephritis was diagnosed and he was treated with corticosteroid therapy for four years. Despite treatment his renal function deteriorated and haemodialysis was started in 1974. At that time, the haemodialysis regime was 12 hours two time per week and Kill dialyzer were used. Bicarbonate dialysis was introduced in 1984. Last 15 years our patient is on the hemodiafiltration. The treatment by erythropoietin was started in 1993. During this 38 years, he received two cadaveric kidney transplants. The first transplantation was in December 1974 in our hospital. Few days after transplantation he get rejection and transplant kidney never functioned. After one month he get thrombosis of the graft and transplantectomy was performed. The second cadaveric transplantation was performed abroad in 1985. Transplant kidney functioned only four days and fifth days urgent transplantectomy was performed. After these experience our patient decline any new kidney transplantation. First arteriovenous fistula was created at the time of start haemodialysis and was functional for 30 years. First arteriovenous graft was created after 30 years on the left forearm few years later on the left upper arm. Last graft has been in good function for six years. The last two years he has a central venous catheter. A subtotal parathyroidectomy was performed in 1983. After parathyroidectomy parathyroid hormone values were between 30 to 55 pmol/L, and the values of serum calcium and serum phosphate were in reference values. Last 15 years he had bone pain and before 10 years he had patlogical hip fracture. Due to vascular disease he often had skin ulcers and infections, particularly on the both hands. Very often he was treated by analgetics, sedatives, including opiates. Last severe complications was a bowel perforation, successfully treated by surgical intervention. SOCIAL HISTORY: Our patient graduated on the university. He is married and had one child. He has worked in the profession for several years. He was founder of association for dialysis and kidney transplant patients. Last twenty years he and colleagues conducted a private centre for haemodialysis. It was the first private centre in the country.Dialysis treatment sometimes can significantly prolong life, i.e. far more than expected in this group of patients and can offer appreciable quality of life.
- [The role of core decompression for the treatment of femoral head avascular necrosis in renal transplant recipients]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Acta Med Croatica 2012 Oct.:76-80.
Avascular bone necrosis is a relatively rare but significant complication in renal transplant recipients because it causes progressive pain and invalidity. It can be the consequence of the action of numerous causative factors, but it is mostly connected to corticosteroid treatment.The underlying pathophysiologic mechanism is a diminished blood flow to the bone leading to necrosis and bone destruction. During the past 25-years period, 570 renal transplantations and five combined kidney and pancreas transplantations were performed in our centre. A part of the patients was lost to follow-up due to the separation of Croatia from the former Republic of Yugoslavia. After transplantation, we revealed aseptic necrosis of the femoral head in five female patients. All patients had a history of treatment with pulse doses of corticosteroids. At transplantation the average age of the patients was 52.2 yrs (range 46 to 62 yrs), and dialytic treatment before transplantation lasted in average 9.2 yrs (range 2.5 to 21.2 yrs). The period between renal transplantation and the development of clinical signs of avascular bone necrosis lasted in average 1.2 yrs (range 0.3 to 2.3 yrs). We will demonstrate our 62-year old female patient with terminal renal failure caused by post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, who was treated with peritoneal dialysis 2.5 years before renal transplantation. Twenty months before renal transplantation the patient received pulse doses of corticosteroids, together with immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis, for the treatment of an acute polyradiculoneuritis Guillaine Barré. After transplantation a standard immunosuppressive protocol was applied which included tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids and induction with basiliximab. Four months after transplantation the patient started to feel pain in the right hip after longer standing, in addition to the earlier long-lasting problems caused by bilateral coxarthrosis. The pelvic radiograph showed subchondral radiolucencies in the lateral part of the head circumference spreading into the proximal part of the neck of the right femur, which indicated the presence of aseptic necrosis, but these changes could have also been caused by coxarthrosis. Unexpectedly, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not reveal changes characteristic for avascular bone necrosis. Due to the progressively worsening of pain and the radiographic finding, the patient was submitted to decompression surgery of the femoral head. The surgical procedure was performed under diascopic guidance (C-arm) which allowed the correct positioning of a Kuerschner wire. A cannulated drill (diameter 4.0 mm) was placed over the wire and we performed two drillings of the spongiosis of the femoral head through to the subchondral area. Postoperatively, the patient was soon verticalized and advised to walk with crooks during a period of six weeks. This time is necessary to allow the mineralisation and strengthening of the bone which is now better vascularised. The patient recovered well and had no more pain. In renal transplant recipients it is most important to raise suspicion and verify the presence of avascular bone necrosis early, because timely bone decompression surgery can eliminate pain and cure the patient or it can prevent or delay bone destruction. When clinical signs of avascular bone necrosis arise and radiographic or standard MRI findings are negative, additional investigations (i.e. SPECT or MRI with contrast) should be performed to confirm or exclude the diagnosis. In latter phases of the disease, surgical decompression of the femoral head cannot lead to permanent amelioration, and it is inevitable to perform more invasive surgical procedures like "resurfacing" or bone grafting in younger patients, or the implantation of total hip endoprotheses.
- [Peritoneal dialysis in a patient with right hemiparesis, lupus nephritis, significant insufficiency of arteries of aortic arch and celiac disease: case report]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Acta Med Croatica 2012 Oct.:72-5.
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a method of choice in patients in whom there are difficulties concerning creation of AV fistula. A 38-year old female patient came to our hospital because of a need of making an AV fistula. She had end-stage renal insufficiency of unknown origin. She had a right hemiparesis with a contracture of the right fist and epilepsy because of the stroke she suffered in 1993. After doing the diagnostics, we have found that patient had lupus nephritis, occlusion of brachiocephalic trunk, right and left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery. We also diagnosed celiac disease and a significant anemia. It was not possible to form an AV fistula, as it was not possible to do an assisted PD. Because of the right hemiparesis and contracture of the right fist, the possibility of performing PD independently was questionable. Despite the handicap, the patient had strong motivation and she managed to master the technique of PD independently. Even though it was estimated that she had a high risk score for applying anesthesia (ASA IV), the insertion of the peritoneal catheter went without complications. Because of the comorbidity, especially because of the significant stenosis and occlusions of the arteries of aortic arch, the kidney transplantation will not be performed. In the last fifteen months, the patient is performing PD independently, without any infectious complications, she is feeling well and is satisfied with the quality of her life. The consequences of the renal insufficiency are under control, systemic lupus erythematosus is, with a low dose of corticosteroids, in a steady state, malnutrition is corrected, but there is still hypoalbuminemia noted.
- [Patient who developed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II after 24 years on hemodialysis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Acta Med Croatica 2012 Oct.:68-71.
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II (HIT) is a clinicopathologic syndrome in which one or more clinical events are temporally related to heparin administration and caused by HIT antibodies. There are at least five different types of clinical events that are associated with HIT: thrombocytopenia; thrombosis; skin necrosis at heparin injection site, venous limb gangrene; and an acute systemic reaction that occurs 5-30 min after intravenous bolus of heparin. HIT typically presents 5-14 days after initiation of heparin therapy, later onset is unusual. Heparin is a routine anticoagulant in hemodialysis but administration is different than in surgical and other medical population. Doses are lower and administered every other day, yet hemodialysis patients receive heparin for years. Relationship between dialysis vintage and HIT-antibody positivity has been analyzed in two studies. In national survey of HIT in hemodialysis population of the United Kingdom mean time between starting hemodialysis and development of HIT was 61 days (5-390 days). Japanese authors also found greatest incidence of HIT antibody positivity in patients who were on hemodialysis for less than 1 year, none of patients on hemodialysis for more than 10 years was HIT-antibody positive. We present a case of 70-years old female who developed HIT after 24 years of hemodialysis and exposure to heparin. First 22 years she was receiving unfractionated heparin for anticoagulation during hemodialysis sessions. Afterwards her therapy was changed to low molecular weight heparin. Last 12 years she has tunneled cuffed catheter which was also filled with unfractionated heparin. She had a history of severe renal osteodistrophy and severe aortal valve stenosis, hypothyreosis, thrombosis of both subclavian veins and partial colon resection due to mesenterial artery thrombosis. Her thrombocyte count was low, but despite extensive work-up which included HIT antibody detection, no cause could be identified. She started complaining of flushing, dyspnea and chest pain that developed several minutes after start of hemodialysis and stopped spontaneously during or after hemodialysis. Symptoms were attributed to her heart disease and she was hospitalized for cardiac reevaluation. Thrombosis of right superficial and commune femoral vein was diagnosed as well as further worsening of thrombocytopenia. HIT antibodies were assessed again and they were positive. Anticoagulation during hemodialysis was changed to fondaparinux and catheter filling to citrate. Afterwards symptoms during hemodialysis disappeared and thrombocyte count recovered. HIT type II is a rare but potentially fatal syndrome that can develop years after start of heparin therapy. To our knowledge, this is the patient with longest hemodialysis vintage and newly diagnosed HIT. This is also the first case of patient on hemodialysis that developed HIT in Croatia published to date.
- [Chronic kidney disease--mineral and bone disorder: why and how to control phosphate]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Acta Med Croatica 2012 Oct.:64-7.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem. Metabolic bone disease and mineral metabolism disturbance are common disturbance of CKD. A critical role of phospohorus in metabolic bone disease, i.e. secondary hyperparatyhroidism is well known. There is growing evidence that hyperphosphatemia isa strong predictor of mortality in CKD, i.e. is a novel risk factor for vascular calcification, left ventricular hypertrophy and kidney disease progression. Prevention and treatment of phosphate disturbace in CKD is still great challenge and new phosphate binders ofer new and advanced possibilites.
- [Kidney transplantation--a successful story started 110 years ago]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Acta Med Croatica 2012 Oct.:59-63.
Organ transplantation is one of the most important medical achievement of the 20th century. Emerich Ullmann performed on March 7th 1902, in the Vienna, the first successful kidney transplantation. It was an autotransplantation in a dog, with a transposition of a kidney in the neck region. Graft function persisted over the next five days. Only the few months later Alexis Carrel performed in Lyon another succcessful kidney autotransplantation in a dog. Carrel was interested in the vascular anastomosis improvement. He developed the triangulation technique of vessel anastomosis and so called Carrel patch. Since then both techniques have become a standard in kidney transplantation. Carrel was awarded with Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1912 for his innovatory work in the field of transplantation and vascular surgery. These experimental transplantations preceded kidney transplantation in the humans which has become a routine operative procedure.
- [A role of WNT in kidney development and function]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Acta Med Croatica 2012 Oct.:56-8.
WNT 4 is a secreted glycoprotein that is critical for nephrogenesis during mesenchymal to epithelial transformation. Lately there are some experimental modles witch confirm a role of Wnt 4 during regeneration process in acute renal failure. On the other hand there are some evidence that Wnt 4 plays important role in renal fibrosis during experimental renal injury in rats that provide tubuloinerstitial fibrosis. When will Wnt 4 have a protective role or when will induce fibrosis still is not known and therefore futher studies will be necessary to gain a more precise understanding.
- [Volume assessment in the acute heart and renal failure]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Acta Med Croatica 2012 Oct.:47-55.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important clinical issue, especially in the setting of critical care. It has been shown in multiple studies to be a key independent risk factor for mortality, even after adjustment for demographics and severity of illness. There is wide agreement that a generally applicable classification system is required for AKI which helps to standardize estimation of severity of renal disfunction and to predict outcome associated with this condition. That's how RIFLE (Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-End-stage renal disease), and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) classifications for AKI were found in 2004 and 2007, respectively. In the clinical setting of heart failure, a positive fluid balance (often expressed in the literature as weight gain) is used by disease management programs as a marker of heart failure decompensation. Oliguria is defined as urine output less than 0,3 ml/kg/h for at least 24 h. Since any delay in treatment can lead to a dangerous progression of the AKI, early recognition of oliguria appears to be crucial. Critically ill patients with oliguric AKI are at increased risk for fluid imbalance due to widespread systemic inflammation, reduced plasma oncotic pressure and increased capillary leak. These patients are particulary at risk of fluid overload and therefore restrictive strategy of fluid administration should be used. Objective, rapid and accurate volume assessment is important in undiagnosed patients presenting with critical illness, as errors may result in interventions with fatal outcomes. The historical tools such as physical exam, and chest radiography suffer from significant limitations. As gold standard, radioisolopic measurement of volume is impractical in the acute care enviroment. Newer technologies offer the promise of both rapid and accurate bedside estimation of volume status with the potential to improve clinical outcomes. Blood assessment with bioimpendance vector analysis, and bedside ultrasound seem to be promising technologies for this need.
- [Efficacy and safety of CERA in anemia correction in predialysis patients--Croatian experience]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Acta Med Croatica 2012 Oct.:42-6.
To evaluate efficacy and safety of CERA (continuous erythropoietin receptor activator) administration for correcting anemia in the patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), not on dialysis.We performed observational study on 27 CKD patients in stage 4 or 5 with renal anemia requiring use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA). All patients received CERA (Mircera; Roche, Basel, Switzerland) subcutaneously in dose of 0.6 microg per kg every two weeks during the correction phase of anemia treatment or once monthly during the maintenance treatment. Dose of CERA was modified according to manufacturer instructions. Iron supplementation was administrated orally or intravenously in order to achieve serum ferritin 200-500 microg/L. Patients were followed up to 1 year (from 3-12 months). Response criteria for CERA were Hb increase >10 g/L above baseline or Hb > or = 110 g/L.Hb statistically significant (p < 0.05), increased during the observation period. The median at baseline was 94 g/L and after 6 months and one year were 108 g/L and 114.5 g/L respectively. Furthermore, the range of the lowest and highest values of Hb gradually decreased indicating less Hb fluctuation. After one year, all patients had Hb range 100 g/L to 120 g/L. There were no statistically significant differences between Hb between groups of patients stratified according to the primary kidney disease and age. During the study period two patients died due to myocardial infarction, probably not associated with CERA administration according to observed Hb levels (103 and 110 g/L). Only registered side effect was slight increase in arterial pressure, controlled with antihypertensive drugs. The majority of patients had reported better exercise tolerance and sleep and less irritability.The results of this observational study suggest that the use of CERA is effective and safe and leads to a successful correction of anemia in CKD patients who have not yet started renal replacement therapy.
- [Glomerular hyperfiltration and diabetic nephropathy]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Acta Med Croatica 2012 Oct.:37-41.
Changes in renal microcirculation represent the important factor in the progression of cardiovascular and renal complications. Microalbuminuria is the earliest indication that indicates the kidney and systemic microcirculatory disorder. The importance of microalbuminuria as a risk factor of increased cardiovascular mortality is well documented. It is therefore extremely important to explore all factors that can prevent the development of microalbuminuria including glomerular hyperfiltration. Is it possible to reduce glomerular hyperfiltration and slow progression of diabetic nephropathy?