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Am Heart J [journal]
- In reply to the letter to the editor by Paul et al. [Letter]
- Am Heart J 2013 Jun; 165(6):e29.
- Thrombotic and bleeding complications after orthopedic surgery. [Letter]
- Am Heart J 2013 Jun; 165(6):e27.
- Prognostic significance of 2-dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler echo indices of right ventricular function in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. [Journal Article]
- Am Heart J 2013 Jun; 165(6):1024-31.
Echocardiographic measures of right ventricular (RV) function are associated with adverse outcomes in adults with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH) but have not been adequately studied in children. We investigated the prognostic value of 2D, M-mode and Doppler indices of RV function in relation to death or lung transplant in children with iPAH and PAH associated with congenital heart diseases (cPAH).Children with iPAH and cPAH were studied. Two echocardiograms were analyzed for each patient: at diagnosis and at last follow-up. Clinical data, catheter hemodynamics and 6-minute walk distance were recorded. Echo indices of RV function were compared between the first and follow-up echo, between iPAH and cPAH patients, and between iPAH patients alive at follow-up versus those who had died or had undergone lung transplant. Survival probability stratified by RV function was analyzed.Fifty-four children were studied: 36 cPAH patients (7.5 ± 5.9 years) and 18 iPAH patients (8.9 ± 5.7 years) of whom 12 were alive and 6 had died or were transplanted. Despite similar pulmonary hemodynamics, RV function, including right atrial volume, tricuspid annular planar excursion, fractional area of change, and left ventricular eccentricity index were worse in iPAH at presentation and at follow-up. At last echo there was further worsening of RV function in iPAH patients, particularly in those who had died or were transplanted, compared with improved or unchanged indices in cPAH patients or iPAH survivors.Conventional echo RV functional parameters are valuable to identify risk for transplant or death in children with PAH.
- Variation among hospitals in selection of higher-cost, "higher-tech," implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: Data from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) Implantable Cardioverter/Defibrillator (ICD) Registry. [Journal Article]
- Am Heart J 2013 Jun; 165(6):1015-1023.e2.
New implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD) models are regularly introduced, incorporating technological advantages. The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with use of a newer, higher-tech/higher-cost device, as opposed to a previously released device, among patients undergoing ICD implantation.We analyzed the 78,494 cases receiving new ICD implants submitted by 978 hospitals to the NCDR ICD Registry between January 2005 and June 2007. Devices were categorized as "previously released" 3 months after a new model from the same manufacturer was released. A nonparsimonious model including all demographic, clinical, provider, and hospital characteristics was created using logistic regression to predict use of a previously released device.Overall, 36% of implants involved previously released devices. However, no demographic (race, gender, payor status), clinical, or provider characteristics had a meaningful impact on use of previously released devices. The model C-statistic was 0.602, suggesting that measured characteristics had a limited ability to differentiate those receiving a previously released device. However, individual hospitals varied greatly in use of "previously released" devices, from 3% in the lowest decile to 91% in the top decile. Among physicians implanting at >1 hospital, there was minimal correlation between use of previously released devices between hospitals, suggesting hospital policies or culture, rather than physician preference, drives the large interhospital variation seen.The use of "previously released" devices is influenced minimally by measured patient or provider characteristics. Rather, the main determinant of whether patients receive the newest, versus a previously released device, appears to be practice patterns at individual hospitals.
- Lack of association between SLCO1B1 polymorphisms and clinical myalgia following rosuvastatin therapy. [Journal Article]
- Am Heart J 2013 Jun; 165(6):1008-14.
Carriers of the rs4363657C and rs4149056C alleles in SLCO1B1 have increased myopathic complaints when taking simvastatin. Whether rosuvastatin has a similar effect is uncertain. This study assesses whether SLCO1B1 polymorphisms relate to clinical myalgia after rosuvastatin therapy.In the JUPITER trial, participants without prior cardiovascular disease or diabetes who had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <130 mg/dL and C-reactive protein ≥2 mg/L were randomly allocated to rosuvastatin 20 mg or placebo and followed for the first cardiovascular disease events and adverse effects. We evaluated the effect of rs4363657 and rs4149056 in SLCO1B1, which encodes organic anion-transporting polypeptide OATP1B1, a regulator of hepatic statin uptake, on clinically reported myalgia.Among 4,404 participants allocated to rosuvastatin, clinical myalgia occurred with a rate of 4.1 events per 100 person-years as compared with 3.7 events per 100 person-years among 4,378 participants allocated to placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 1.13, 95% CI 0.98-1.30). Among those on rosuvastatin, there were no differences in the rate of myalgia among those with the rs4363657C (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.79-1.14 per allele) or the rs4149056C allele (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.79-1.15 per allele) compared with those without the C allele. Similar null data were observed when the myalgia definition was broadened to include muscle weakness, stiffness, or pain. None of the 3 participants on rosuvastatin or the 3 participants on placebo with frank myopathy had the minor allele at either polymorphism.There appears to be no increased risk of myalgia among users of rosuvastatin who carry the rs4363657C or the rs4149056C allele in SLCO1B1.
- Short-term outcomes of balloon angioplasty versus stent placement for patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: Implications for patients requiring early coronary artery bypass surgery. [Journal Article]
- Am Heart J 2013 Jun; 165(6):1000-7.
In patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) needing early coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, it is unknown whether primary percutaneous balloon angioplasty (PTCA)-without stent implantation-allows safe transition to subsequent CABG.We examined acute STEMI patients enrolled in the Stent-PAMI and CADILLAC trials to study the differences in the early clinical events between those treated with primary PTCA (n = 1494) or primary stenting (n = 1488).Baseline clinical and pre- and post-procedural angiographic features including post-intervention TIMI 3 flow rates were similar in the 2 groups with the exception of higher median infarct-artery residual stenosis in the PTCA group (26% [IQR 19%-34%] vs. 18% [IQR 11-25%], P < .001]. Provisional stenting was required in 16% of patients in PTCA group, while stents could not be implanted in 2% of the stent group. Sixty-percent of PTCA patients had stent-like balloon result. The rate of 30-day ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization was higher in the PTCA group (4.3% vs. 2.0%, P < .001 [4.6% vs 2.3%, P < .001 among patients with multivessel disease and 3.4% vs. 2.0%, P = .044 in patients with stent-like balloon results]) while 30-day major adverse cardiac events (6.2% vs 4.9%), death (1.8% versus 2.8%), and reinfarction (0.9% vs. 0.7%) were similar in the 2 groups.Compared with primary stenting, primary PTCA of infarct artery in STEMI patients was associated with significant increase in ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization (ITVR) rate, yet with no increased risk of major adverse cardiac events, reinfarction or death. Thus, provided close surveillance is maintained and prompt treatment initiated for early ischemic events, PTCA (particularly in those with stent-like balloon result) may be a reasonable and safe option in STEMI patients needing early CABG.
- Biological variation of galectin-3 and soluble ST2 for chronic heart failure: Implication on interpretation of test results. [Journal Article]
- Am Heart J 2013 Jun; 165(6):995-9.
Galectin-3 and soluble ST2 (sST2) are novel serum biomarkers of chronic heart failure.The biological variability of galectin-3 and sST2 was measured from a cohort of 17 healthy subjects where blood was taken once every 2 weeks for 8 weeks (n = 4 samples) and from 12 subjects where blood was taken hourly (for galectin-3 only). The analytical, intraindividual, and interindividual variation were measured for galectin-3 (BG Medicine, Waltham, MA) and sST2 (Critical Diagnostics, San Diego, CA). From these measurements, the reference change (RCV) and index of individuality was 39% (hourly) and 61% (weekly) and 1.0 (hourly and weekly) for galectin-3. Corresponding RCV and index of individuality values for sST2 were 30% and 0.25.The RCV result for sST2 was lower than the corresponding results for galectin-3, B-type natriuretic peptide, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. These data suggest that sST2 may be more useful for monitoring long-term heart failure, and galectin-3 may be more useful for the diagnosis of heart failure remodeling.
- Are we targeting the right metric for heart failure? Comparison of hospital 30-day readmission rates and total episode of care inpatient days. [Journal Article]
- Am Heart J 2013 Jun; 165(6):987-994.e1.
Hospitals are challenged to reduce length of stay (LOS), yet simultaneously reduce readmissions for patients with heart failure (HF). This study investigates whether 30-day rehospitalization or an alternative measure of total inpatient days over an episode of care (EOC) is the best indicator of resource use, HF quality, and outcomes.Using data from the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Registry linked to Medicare claims, we ranked and compared hospitals by LOS, 30-day readmission rate, and overall EOC metric, defined as all hospital days for an HF admission and any subsequent admissions within 30 days. We divided hospitals into quartiles by 30-day EOC and 30-day readmission rates. We compared performance by EOC and readmission rate quartiles with respect to quality of care indicators and 30-day postdischarge mortality.The population had a mean age of 80 ± 7.95 years, 45% were male, and 82% were white. Hospital-level unadjusted median index LOS and overall EOC were 4.9 (4.2-5.6) and 6.2 (5.3-7.4) days, respectively. Median 30-day readmission rate was 23.2%. Hospital HF readmission rate was not associated with initial hospital LOS, only slightly associated with total EOC rank (r = 0.26, P = .001), and inversely related to HF performance measures. After adjustment, there was no association between 30-day readmission and decreased 30-day mortality. In contrast, better performance on the EOC metric was associated with decreased odds of 30-day mortality.Although hospital 30-day readmission rate was poorly correlated with LOS, quality measures, and 30-day mortality, better performance on the EOC metric was associated with better 30-day survival. Total inpatient days during a 30-day EOC may more accurately reflect overall resource use and better serve as a target for quality improvement efforts.
- Transitional adherence and persistence in the use of aldosterone antagonist therapy in patients with heart failure. [Journal Article]
- Am Heart J 2013 Jun; 165(6):979-986.e1.
Aldosterone antagonist therapy is recommended for selected patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Adherence to therapy in the transition from hospital to home is not well understood.We identified patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction who were ≥65 years old, eligible for aldosterone antagonist therapy, and discharged home from hospitals in the Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure registry between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2008. We used Medicare prescription drug event data to measure adherence. Main outcome measures were prescription at discharge, outpatient prescription claim within 90 days, discontinuation, and adherence as measured with the medication possession ratio. We used the cumulative incidence function to estimate rates of initiation and discontinuation.Among 2,086 eligible patients, 561 (26.9%) were prescribed an aldosterone antagonist at discharge. Within 90 days, 78.6% of eligible patients with a discharge prescription filled a prescription for the therapy, compared with 13.0% of eligible patients without a discharge prescription (P < .001). The median medication possession ratio was 0.63 over 1 year of follow-up. Among 634 patients who filled a prescription within 90 days of discharge, 7.9% discontinued therapy within 1 year.Most eligible patients were not prescribed aldosterone antagonist therapy at discharge from a heart failure hospitalization. Eligible patients without a discharge prescription seldom initiated therapy as outpatients. Most patients who were prescribed an aldosterone antagonist at discharge filled the prescription within 90 days and remained on therapy.