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Am J Gastroenterol [journal]
- Risk Factors for Barrett's Esophagus Compared Between African Americans and Non-Hispanic Whites. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Gastroenterol 2014 Nov 25.
OBJECTIVES:Esophageal adenocarcinoma is more common among non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) than African Americans (AAs). It is unclear whether its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE), is also less common among AAs, and whether differences in risk factor profiles explain the racial disparity.METHODS:Data were from a case-control study among eligible Veterans Affairs patients scheduled for an upper endoscopy, and a sample identified from primary care clinics. Participants completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic and clinical factors and underwent a study esophagogastroduodenoscopy. We calculated race-specific BE prevalence rates and used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for BE.RESULTS:There were 301 BE cases and 1,651 controls. BE prevalence was significantly higher among NHWs than AAs (21.3 vs. 5.0%; P<0.001). NHWs were more likely than AAs to be male, have a high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), hiatal hernia, and use proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), but less likely to have Helicobacter pylori (P<0.001). Among cases, NHWs were more likely to have long-segment BE and dysplasia than AAs. Independent BE risk factors for AAs included a hiatus hernia ≥3 cm (OR 4.12; 95% CI, 1.57-10.81) and a history of gastroesophageal reflux disease or PPI use (OR, 3.70; 95% CI, 1.40-9.78), whereas high WHR (OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.41-5.63), hiatus hernia ≥3 cm (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 3.05-8.03), PPI use (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.33-2.66), and H. pylori (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41-0.99) were statistically significantly associated with BE risk for NHWs. Among all cases and controls, race was a risk factor for BE, independent of other BE risk factors (OR for AAs, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.17-0.38).CONCLUSIONS:Among veterans, the prevalence of BE was lower in AAs compared with NHWs. This disparity was not accounted for by differences in risk estimates or prevalence of risk factors between NHWs and AAs.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 25 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.351.
- Altered Duodenal Microbiota Composition in Celiac Disease Patients Suffering From Persistent Symptoms on a Long-Term Gluten-Free Diet. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Gastroenterol 2014 Nov 18.
Objectives:A significant fraction of celiac disease patients suffer from persistent symptoms despite a long-term gluten-free diet (GFD) and normalized small bowel mucosa. The commonly suggested reasons, such as inadvertent gluten-intake or presence of other gastrointestinal disease, do not explain the symptoms in all these patients. Recently, alterations in intestinal microbiota have been associated with autoimmune disorders, including celiac disease. This led us to test a hypothesis that abnormal intestinal microbiota may be associated with persisting gastrointestinal symptoms in treated celiac disease patients.Methods:Duodenal microbiota was analyzed in 18 GFD-treated patients suffering from persistent symptoms and 18 treated patients without symptoms by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The celiac disease patients had been following a strict GFD for several years and had restored small bowel mucosa and negative celiac autoantibodies. Their symptoms on GFD were assessed with Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale.Results:The results of several clustering methods showed that the treated celiac disease patients with persistent symptoms were colonized by different duodenal microbiota in comparison with patients without symptoms. The treated patients with persistent symptoms had a higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P=0.04) and a lower abundance of Bacteroidetes (P=0.01) and Firmicutes (P=0.05). Moreover, their microbial richness was reduced. The results indicated intestinal dysbiosis in patients with persistent symptoms even while adhering to a strict GFD.Conclusions:Our findings indicate that dysbiosis of microbiota is associated with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms in treated celiac disease patients and open new possibilities to treat this subgroup of patients.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 18 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.355.
- Combination Therapy With Sorafenib and Radiofrequency Ablation for BCLC Stage 0-B1 Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Gastroenterol 2014 Nov 18.
OBJECTIVES:The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined therapy using Sorafenib and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with curative intent for all detectable lesions in patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) Stage 0-B1 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS:One hundred and twenty-eight patients with HCC from 12 centers were enrolled in this retrospective study; 64 patients who received Sorafenib plus RFA (Sorafenib-RFA) were compared with a control group treated with RFA alone. The two patient groups were selected with a predefined criterion and matched in terms of their clinical and tumor characteristics at baseline. The primary end point of the study was the incidence of post-RFA HCC recurrence. Secondary end points were overall survival (OS) and treatment toxicity.RESULTS:During a median follow-up of 134.1 weeks, 49 patients died and 79 survived. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year cumulative incidences of post-RFA recurrence were 40.5%, 62.9%, and 74.5%, respectively, in the Sorafenib-RFA group, and 62.8%, 85.4%, and 92.7%, respectively, in the RFA group. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year OS rates were 85.6%, 64.0%, 58.7%, and 50.3%, respectively, in the Sorafenib-RFA group, and 80.7%, 47.2%, 30.9%, and 30.9%, respectively, in the RFA group. Thus, the Sorafenib-RFA group exhibited better survival than the RFA alone group.CONCLUSIONS:Combined therapy with Sorafenib-RFA was associated with a lower incidence of post-RFA recurrence and better OS than RFA alone in patients with BCLC Stage 0-B1 HCC. Although these findings suggest that Sorafenib and RFA is safe and effective for the treatment of early HCC, prospective and randomized controlled trials are needed to validate them.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 18 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.343.
- Increased Nutrient Sensitivity and Plasma Concentrations of Enteral Hormones During Duodenal Nutrient Infusion in Functional Dyspepsia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Gastroenterol 2014 Nov 18.
OBJECTIVES:Functional dyspepsia is predominantly attributed to gastric sensorimotor dysfunctions. The contribution of intestinal chemosensitivity to symptoms is not understood. We evaluated symptoms and plasma hormones during enteral nutrient infusion and the association with impaired glucose tolerance and quality-of-life (QOL) scores in patients with functional dyspepsia vs. healthy controls.METHODS:Enteral hormonal responses and symptoms were measured during isocaloric and isovolumic dextrose and lipid infusions into the duodenum in 30 patients with functional dyspepsia (n=27) or nausea and vomiting (n=3) and 35 healthy controls. Infusions were administered in randomized order over 120 min each, with a 120-min washout. Cholecystokinin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), and peptide YY were measured during infusions.RESULTS:Moderate or more severe symptoms during lipid (4 controls vs. 14 patients) and dextrose (1 control vs. 12 patients) infusions were more prevalent in patients than controls (P≤0.01), associated with higher dyspepsia symptom score (P=0.01), worse QOL (P=0.01), and greater plasma hormone concentrations (e.g., GLP1 during lipid infusion). Moderate or more severe symptoms during enteral infusion explained 18%, and depression score explained 21%, of interpatient variation in QOL. Eight patients had impaired glucose tolerance, associated with greater plasma GLP1 and peptide YY concentrations during dextrose and lipid infusions, respectively.CONCLUSIONS:Increased sensitivity to enteral dextrose and lipid infusions was associated with greater plasma enteral hormone concentrations, more severe daily symptoms, and worse QOL in functional dyspepsia. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that enteral hormones mediate increased intestinal sensitivity to nutrients in functional dyspepsia.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 18 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.330.
- A New Clinically Based Staging System for Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Gastroenterol 2014 Nov 11.
OBJECTIVES:Current staging systems for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA) are inadequate, as they are based on surgical pathology and therefore not relevant to unresectable patients. Clinical trials for potential targeted therapies for pCCA are hampered by the lack of an accurate, nonoperative staging system for predicting survival. We aimed at developing a clinical staging system for pCCA, which would be of prognostic relevance for all pCCA patients and help stratify patients for clinical trials.METHODS:Clinical information at the time of pCCA diagnosis of 413 patients seen at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN between 2002 and 2010 was retrospectively analyzed. A survival predictive model was developed using Cox proportional hazards analysis. The performance of the staging system was compared with the current AJCC/UICC (the American Joint Committee on Cancer/the Union for International Cancer Control) 7th tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system.RESULTS:Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status, tumor size and number, vascular encasement, lymph node and peritoneal metastasis and CA 19-9 level were grouped into a four-tier staging system. The median survivals of stages I, II, III, and IV patients were 48.6, 21.8, 8.6, and 2.8 months, with hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of 1.0 (reference), 1.7 (1.1-2.6), 3.1 (2.0-4.7), and 8.7 (5.2-14.5), respectively (P<0.0001). This staging system had greater concordance statistics (standard error) than the TNM staging system (0.725 (0.018) vs. 0.614 (0.017)), indicating better performance in predicting survival.CONCLUSIONS:This staging system, based on nonoperative information at the time of pCCA diagnosis, has excellent discriminatory power to classify patients into four prognostic stages. It could be useful to clinicians and for the design of clinical trials.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 11 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.327.
- Underuse of Surveillance Colonoscopy in Patients at Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Gastroenterol 2014 Nov 11.
OBJECTIVES:Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality have declined over the past two decades, and much of this improvement is attributed to increased use of screening. Approximately 25% of patients who undergo screening colonoscopy have premalignant adenomas that require removal and follow-up colonoscopy. However, there are few studies of the use of surveillance colonoscopy in increased risk patients with previous adenomas.METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine factors associated with underuse of surveillance colonoscopy among patients who are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. The study population consisted of patients with previously identified adenomatous polyps and who were due for follow-up colonoscopy. Patients were categorized as attenders (n=100) or non-attenders (n=104) on the basis of completion of follow-up colonoscopy. Telephone surveys assessed the use of surveillance colonoscopy across domains of predisposing patient characteristics, enabling factors, and patient need. Mutlivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with screening completion.RESULTS:Perceived barriers, perceived benefits, social deprivation, and cancer worry were associated with attendance at colonoscopy. Higher benefits (odds ratio (OR) 2.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-5.41) and cancer worry (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.07-2.79) increased the odds of attendance at follow-up colonoscopy, whereas greater barriers (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.28-0.88) and high social deprivation (≥2; OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01-0.76) were associated with lower odds.CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that multilevel factors contribute to the use of surveillance colonoscopy in higher risk populations, many of which are amenable to intervention. Interventions, such as patient navigation, may help facilitate appropriate use of surveillance colonoscopy.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 11 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.344.
- Calendar of courses, symposiums, and conferences. [Journal Article]
- Am J Gastroenterol 2014 Nov; 109(11):1840.
- The Safety of Probiotics in IBS and CIC is Worthy of Further Discussion. [Journal Article]
- Am J Gastroenterol 2014 Nov; 109(11):1838-9.
- Therapy without diagnosis. [Journal Article]
- Am J Gastroenterol 2014 Nov; 109(11):1837-8.
- At 64 years, Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome Is Still in the Differential! [Journal Article]
- Am J Gastroenterol 2014 Nov; 109(11):1835-7.