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Am J Kidney Dis [journal]
- Bloodstream Infection Rates in Outpatient Hemodialysis Facilities Participating in a Collaborative Prevention Effort: A Quality Improvement Report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2013 May 10.
BACKGROUND:Bloodstream infections (BSIs) cause substantial morbidity in hemodialysis patients. In 2009, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sponsored a collaborative project to prevent BSIs in outpatient hemodialysis facilities. We sought to assess the impact of a set of interventions on BSI and access-related BSI rates in participating facilities using data reported to the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).
STUDY DESIGN:Quality improvement project.
SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:Patients in 17 outpatient hemodialysis facilities that volunteered to participate. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PLAN: Facilities reported monthly event and denominator data to NHSN, received guidance from the CDC, and implemented an evidence-based intervention package that included chlorhexidine use for catheter exit-site care, staff training and competency assessments focused on catheter care and aseptic technique, hand hygiene and vascular access care audits, and feedback of infection and adherence rates to staff.
OUTCOMES:Crude and modeled BSI and access-related BSI rates.
MEASUREMENTS:Up to 12 months of preintervention (January 2009 through December 2009) and 15 months of intervention period (January 2010 through March 2011) data from participating centers were analyzed. Segmented regression analysis was used to assess changes in BSI and access-related BSI rates during the preintervention and intervention periods.
RESULTS:Most (65%) participating facilities were hospital based. Pooled mean BSI and access-related BSI rates were 1.09 and 0.73 events per 100 patient-months during the preintervention period and 0.89 and 0.42 events per 100 patient-months during the intervention period, respectively. Modeled rates decreased 32% (P = 0.01) for BSIs and 54% (P < 0.001) for access-related BSIs at the start of the intervention period.
LIMITATIONS:Participating facilities were not representative of all outpatient hemodialysis centers nationally. There was no control arm to this quality improvement project.
CONCLUSIONS:Facilities participating in a collaborative successfully decreased their BSI and access-related BSI rates. The decreased rates appeared to be maintained in the intervention period. These findings suggest that improved implementation of recommended practices can reduce BSIs in hemodialysis centers.
- Outcomes of Patients Receiving Maintenance Dialysis Admitted Over Weekends. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2013 May 10.
BACKGROUND:Hospital admissions over weekends have been associated with worse outcomes in different patient populations. The cause of this difference in outcomes remains unclear; however, different staffing patterns over weekends have been speculated to contribute. We evaluated outcomes in patients on maintenance dialysis therapy admitted over weekends using a national database.
STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study.
SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:We included nonelective admissions of adult patients (≥18 years) on maintenance dialysis therapy (n = 3,278,572) identified using appropriate International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for 2005-2009 using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database.
PREDICTOR:Weekend versus weekday admission.
OUTCOMES:The primary outcome measure was all-cause in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included mortality by day 3 of admission, length of hospital stay, time to death, and discharge disposition.
MEASUREMENTS:We adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics, payer, year, comorbid conditions, and primary discharge diagnosis common to maintenance dialysis patients.
RESULTS:There were an estimated 704,491 admissions over weekends versus 2,574,081 over weekdays. Unadjusted all-cause in-hospital mortality was 40,666 (5.8%) for weekend admissions in comparison to 138,517 (5.4%) for weekday admissions (P < 0.001). In a multivariable model, patients admitted over weekends had higher all-cause in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10) in comparison to those admitted over weekdays and higher mortality during the first 3 days of admission (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.10-1.26). Patients admitted over weekends were less likely to be discharged to home, had longer hospital stays, and had shorter times to death compared with those admitted over weekdays on adjusted analysis.
LIMITATIONS:Use of ICD-9-CM codes to identify patients, defining weekend as midnight Friday to midnight Sunday.
CONCLUSIONS:Maintenance dialysis patients admitted over weekends have increased mortality rates and longer lengths of stay compared with those admitted over weekdays. Further studies are needed to identify the reasons for worse outcomes for weekend admissions in this patient population.
- Current Status and Practical Use of Effluent Biomarkers in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2013 May 10.
Long-term peritoneal dialysis therapy can lead to alterations in the function and morphology of the peritoneal membrane. Assessment of the peritoneal dialysis membrane usually is done by investigating the transport of small solutes and fluid. Assessment of morphologic alterations and their development would require repetitive peritoneal biopsies that usually are not feasible. Peritoneal tissues are bathed in dialysis solutions during peritoneal dialysis and may secrete or shed substances that can be recovered in peritoneal effluent. These molecular effluent biomarkers may give insight into morphologic changes. In this review, established and emerging candidate biomarkers in peritoneal dialysis are discussed. Additionally, requirements, challenges, and clinical applications of effluent biomarkers in peritoneal dialysis are addressed.
- Tripterygium Preparations for the Treatment of CKD: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2013 May 9.
BACKGROUND:Preparations of the herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F are used widely for the treatment of chronic kidney disease in China. The efficacy and safety of Tripterygium preparations still have not been fully identified.
STUDY DESIGN:Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING &
POPULATION:Patients with chronic kidney disease. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES: Randomized controlled trials.
INTERVENTION:Tripterygium preparations (Tripterygium glycoside tablets, Tripterygium hypoglaucum Hutch tablets, and Tripterygium granules or extracts) versus placebo, standard care, or other immunosuppressive treatment.
OUTCOMES:Weighted mean difference and summary estimates of relative risk (RR) reductions with 95% CIs were calculated with a random-effects model. Outcomes analyzed included change in proteinuria, serum creatinine level, and creatinine clearance rate, as well as remission and relapse rate and drug-related adverse events.
RESULTS:We identified 75 trials that included 4,386 participants. Overall, Tripterygium therapy reduced proteinuria by protein excretion of 628 (95% CI, -736 to -521) mg/d and reduced serum creatinine level by 0.12 (95% CI, -0.17 to -0.06) mg/dL compared with controls (both P < 0.001) in a range of kidney conditions. Tripterygium preparations also increased the rate of complete remission by 56% (95% CI, 32%-85%; P < 0.001) and of complete or partial remission by 24% (95% CI, 17%-31%; P < 0.001) while reducing relapse by 58% (95% CI, 42%-69%; P < 0.001). Tripterygium preparations increased the rate of liver function test result abnormalities (RR, 4.03; 95% CI, 2.24-7.25; P < 0.001) and altered menstruation (RR, 5.29; 95% CI, 2.09-13.38; P < 0.001).
LIMITATIONS:Suboptimal study quality, significant heterogeneity in the primary outcome.
CONCLUSIONS:Tripterygium preparations may have nephroprotective effects, but high-quality trials are required to reliably determine the balance of benefits and harms.
- Blood Pressure, Proteinuria, and Phosphate as Risk Factors for Progressive Kidney Disease: A Hypothesis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2013 May 9.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects approximately 500 million people worldwide and is increasingly common in both industrialized and emerging countries. Although the mechanisms underlying the inexorable progression of CKD are incompletely defined, recent discoveries may pave the way to a more comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of CKD progression and the development of new therapeutic strategies. In particular, there is accumulating evidence indicating a key role for the complex and yet incompletely understood system of divalent cation regulation, which includes phosphate metabolism and the recently discovered fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23)/klotho system, which seems inextricably associated with vitamin D deficiency. The aim of this review is to discuss the links between high blood pressure, proteinuria, phosphate levels, and CKD progression and explore new therapeutic strategies to win the fight against CKD.
- Out-of-Hospital Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and Hypomagnesemia at Hospital Admission: A Nested Case-Control Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2013 May 9.
BACKGROUND:Case series suggest that long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is associated with hypomagnesemia, but the current literature lacks systematically collected data. Our aim was to examine whether hypomagnesemia at the time of hospital admission is associated with out-of-hospital use of PPIs.
STUDY DESIGN:Nested case-control study matched for age and sex.
SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:Data were collected retrospectively from a tertiary acute-care facility. Eligible cases consisted of 402 adults with hypomagnesemia (serum magnesium <1.4 mEq/L) at the time of hospital admission to medical services, age- and sex-matched with 402 control individuals with normal serum magnesium levels (1.4-2.0 mEq/L).
PREDICTOR:Out-of-hospital PPI use was identified in the hospital record. An omeprazole equivalent dose was calculated when possible. Covariates included the Charlson-Deyo comorbidity index, diabetes, diuretic use, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and gastroesophageal reflux.
OUTCOME:Multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association of PPI use with hypomagnesemia at the time of hospital admission.
RESULTS:PPI use was not associated with hypomagnesemia (adjusted OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.61-1.11). Neither PPI type nor omeprazole equivalent daily dose was associated with hypomagnesemia. Sensitivity analyses of PPI use restricted to patients with esophageal disorders (adjusted OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.69-1.45), severe hypomagnesemia (magnesium, ≤1.0 mEq/L; adjusted OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.13-4.61), or estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (adjusted OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.53-1.34) were unrevealing.
LIMITATIONS:Exposure misclassification; hospitalized patients on medical services may not be representative of a broader ambulatory-based population.
CONCLUSIONS:In a hospital-based adult population, out-of-hospital PPI use is not associated with hypomagnesemia at the time of hospital admission to medical services. In light of these inconclusive results, prospective cohort studies are needed to address this rare potential medication-related adverse effect.
- AA Amyloidosis Associated With Systemic-Onset Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2013 May 9.
We report a 12-year-old boy with nephrotic syndrome due to renal AA amyloidosis. The AA amyloidosis was associated with a 3-year history of systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The presence of serum amyloid A protein was confirmed by laser microdissection of Congo Red-positive glomeruli and vessels followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; this analysis excluded hereditary and familial amyloidosis. Aggressive management of the systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis resulted in improvement in clinical and laboratory parameters. The case represents an unusual cause of nephrotic syndrome in children. Early diagnosis of renal amyloidosis and management of systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis is paramount to preventing progression of kidney disease.
- Trends in Relative Mortality Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Whites Initiating Dialysis: A Retrospective Study of the US Renal Data System. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2013 May 3.
BACKGROUND:Hispanic patients undergoing long-term dialysis experience better survival compared with non-Hispanic whites. It is unknown whether this association differs by age, has changed over time, or is due to differential access to kidney transplantation.
STUDY DESIGN:National retrospective cohort study.
SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:Using the US Renal Data System, we identified 615,618 white patients 18 years or older who initiated dialysis therapy between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2007. PREDICTORS: Hispanic ethnicity (vs non-Hispanic whites), year of end-stage renal disease incidence, age (as potential effect modifier).
OUTCOMES:All-cause and cause-specific mortality.
RESULTS:We found that Hispanics initiating dialysis therapy experienced lower mortality, but age modified this association (P < 0.001). Compared with non-Hispanic whites, mortality in Hispanics was 33% lower at ages 18-39 years (adjusted cause-specific HR [HRcs], 0.67; 95% CI, 0.64-0.71) and 40-59 years (HRcs, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.66-0.68), 19% lower at ages 60-79 years (HRcs, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.80-0.82), and 6% lower at 80 years or older (HRcs, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.97). Accounting for the differential rates of kidney transplantation, the associations were attenuated markedly in the younger age strata; the survival benefit for Hispanics was reduced from 33% to 10% at ages 18-39 years (adjusted subdistribution-specific HR [HRsd], 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.94) and from 33% to 19% among those aged 40-59 years (HRsd, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.80-0.83).
LIMITATIONS:Inability to analyze Hispanic subgroups that may experience heterogeneous mortality outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS:Overall, Hispanics experienced lower mortality, but differential access to kidney transplantation was responsible for much of the apparent survival benefit noted in younger Hispanics.
- Babesiosis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury With Prominent Urinary Macrophages. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2013 May 2.
Babesia is an obligate intracellular erythrocyte parasite that can infect humans. Severe symptomatic disease from massive hemolysis and multiorgan system failure, including acute kidney injury (AKI), occurs. Acute tubular injury from a combination of volume depletion and heme pigment toxicity from profound hemolysis is the most common cause of AKI. We present a case of severe babesiosis complicated by dialysis-requiring AKI with the unique finding of large macrophages containing engulfed erythrocyte fragments in urine sediment. This urinary finding raised the possibility of another diagnosis distinct from acute tubular injury. Subsequent kidney biopsy demonstrated infection-associated acute interstitial nephritis.