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Am J Pathol [journal]
- Innate Immune Activation in the Pathogenesis of a Murine Model of Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2013 Dec 4.
Globoid cell leukodystrophy is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by the loss of galactocerebrosidase. Galactocerebrosidase loss leads to the accumulation of psychosine and subsequent oligodendrocyte cell death, demyelination, macrophage recruitment, and astroglial activation and proliferation. To date, no studies have elucidated the mechanism of glial cell activation and cytokine and chemokine up-regulation and release. We explored a novel explanation for the development of the pathological changes in the early stages of globoid cell leukodystrophy associated with toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 up-regulation in the hindbrain and cerebellum as a response to dying oligodendrocytes. TLR2 up-regulation on microglia/macrophages coincided with morphological changes consistent with activation at 2 and 3 weeks of age. TLR2 up-regulation on activated microglia/macrophages resulted in astrocyte activation and marked up-regulation of cytokines/chemokines. Because oligodendrocyte cell death is an important feature of globoid cell leukodystrophy, we tested the ability of TLR2 reporter cells to respond to oligodendrocyte cell death. These reporter cells responded in vitro to medium conditioned by psychosine-treated oligodendrocytes, indicating the likelihood that oligodendrocytes release a TLR2 ligand during apoptosis. TLRs are a member of the innate immune system and initiate immune and inflammatory events; therefore, the identification of TLR2 as a potential driver in the activation of central nervous system glial activity in globoid cell leukodystrophy may provide important insight into its pathogenesis.
- Ex Vivo Pathogenicity of Anti-Laminin γ1 Autoantibodies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2013 Nov 30.
Autoimmunity against laminins has been described in several autoimmune diseases (including mucous membrane pemphigoid, anti-laminin γ1 pemphigoid, and connective tissue diseases), in pregnancy loss, and in infections such as Chagas disease. Except for anti-laminin-332 mucous membrane pemphigoid, adequate evidence has been lacking for the tissue injury potential of laminin-specific antibodies and the pathogenic epitopes. We evaluated the pathogenic potential of antibodies targeting laminin γ1, a major constituent of basement membranes and the main antigen in anti-laminin γ1 pemphigoid. Rabbit antibodies were generated against fragments of the N-terminus and C-terminus of murine laminin γ1, and their ability to disrupt ligand interactions and/or to activate complement and granulocytes was assessed using previously established ex vivo assays. Our findings document a pathogenic potential of antibodies targeting the laminin γ1 N-terminus. These antibodies interfere with the binding of nidogen to laminin and can activate granulocytes and the complement cascade. We detected antibodies with different degrees of reactivity with laminin γ1 N-terminus in patients with anti-laminin γ1 pemphigoid, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma. Our results provide mechanistic insights into the tissue damage associated with laminin autoimmunity and could facilitate development of appropriate diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies.
- Circulating Fibrocytes Stabilize Blood Vessels during Angiogenesis in a Paracrine Manner. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2013 Nov 30.
Accumulating evidence supports that circulating fibrocytes play important roles in angiogenesis. However, the specific role of fibrocytes in angiogenesis and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we found that fibrocytes stabilized newly formed blood vessels in a mouse wound-healing model by inhibiting angiogenesis during the proliferative phase and inhibiting blood vessel regression during the remodeling phase. Fibrocytes also inhibited angiogenesis in a Matrigel mouse model. In vitro study showed that fibrocytes inhibited both the apoptosis and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in a permeable support (Transwell) co-culture system. In a three-dimensional collagen gel, fibrocytes stabilized the VEC tubes by decreasing VEC tube density on stimulation with growth factors and preventing VEC tube regression on withdrawal of growth factors. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that fibrocytes expressed many prosurvival factors that are responsible for the prosurvival effect of fibrocytes on VECs and blood vessels. Fibrocytes also expressed angiogenesis inhibitors, including thrombospondin-1 (THBS1). THBS1 knockdown partially blocked the fibrocyte-induced inhibition of VEC proliferation in the Transwell co-culture system and recovered the fibrocyte-induced decrease of VEC tube density in collagen gel. Purified fibrocytes transfected with THBS1 siRNA partially recovered the fibrocyte-induced inhibition of angiogenesis in both the wound-healing and Matrigel models. In conclusion, our findings reveal that fibrocytes stabilize blood vessels via prosurvival factors and anti-angiogenic factors, including THBS1.
- Polymorphisms of Human Placental Alkaline Phosphatase Are Associated with in Vitro Fertilization Success and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2013 Nov 29.
Fertility is a quantitative, complex character governed by a considerable number of genes. Despite clinical and scientific advances, several cases of human infertility remain unexplained. In the present study, using a positional cloning approach in a mouse model of interspecific recombinant lines, a candidate gene, ALPP, encoding the placental alkaline phosphatase, was identified as being potentially involved in recurrent spontaneous abortion. We then analyzed patients for detecting putative associations between ALPP polymorphisms, in vitro fertilization failures, and miscarriages. ALPP was sequenced in 100 controls and 100 patients, affected by recurrent spontaneous abortion, from the same ethnic background. The frequency of several alleles and allelic combinations were different between recurrent spontaneous abortion and control women. One polymorphism induced a coding substitution (Ile89Leu) that was associated with a decreased risk of abortion and in vitro fertilization failure. Thereafter, the population was increased by the analysis of 92 additional controls and 612 additional patients for the coding polymorphism Ile89Leu. We finally show, by functional analysis, that the 89Leu placental alkaline phosphatase has an enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity. This study suggests that ALPP genotyping could be a strong predictor of implantation success.
- Critical Role of the mTOR Pathway in Development and Function of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in lal(-/-) Mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2013 Nov 25.
Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is essential for the hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides to generate cholesterol and free fatty acids in cellular lysosomes. Ablation of the lal gene (lal(-/-)) systemically increased expansion of CD11b(+)Ly6G(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that caused myeloproliferative neoplasms in mice. Study of lal(-/-) bone marrow Ly6G(+) MDSCs via transcriptional profiling showed increases in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway transcripts. Injection of mTOR pharmacologic inhibitors into lal(-/-) mice significantly reduced bone marrow myelopoiesis and systemic CD11b(+)Ly6G(+) cell expansion. Rapamycin treatment of lal(-/-) mice stimulated a shift from immature CD11b(+)Ly6G(+) cells to CD11b(+) single-positive cells in marrow and tissues and partially reversed the increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis, increased ATP synthesis, and increased cell cycling of bone marrow CD11b(+)Ly6G(+) cells obtained from lal(-/-) mice. Pharmacologic and siRNA suppression of mTOR, regulatory-associated protein of mTOR, rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR, and Akt1 function corrected lal(-/-) of CD11b(+)Ly6G(+) cell development from Lin(-) progenitor cells and reversed the immune suppression on T-cell proliferation and function in association with decreased reactive oxygen species production, and recovery from impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential compared with control mutant cells. These results indicate a crucial role of LAL-regulated mTOR signaling in the production and function of CD11b(+)Ly6G(+) cells. The mTOR pathway may serve as a novel target to modulate the emergence of MDSCs in those pathophysiologic states in which these cells play an immunosuppressive role.
- Diuretics Prevent Thiazolidinedione-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy without Compromising Insulin-Sensitizing Effects in Mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2013 Nov 25.
Much concern has arisen regarding critical adverse effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs), including rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, on cardiac tissue. Although TZD-induced cardiac hypertrophy (CH) has been attributed to an increase in plasma volume or a change in cardiac nutrient preference, causative roles have not been established. To test the hypothesis that volume expansion directly mediates rosiglitazone-induced CH, mice were fed a high-fat diet with rosiglitazone, and cardiac and metabolic consequences were examined. Rosiglitazone treatment induced volume expansion and CH in wild-type and PPARγ heterozygous knockout (Pparg(+/-)) mice, but not in mice defective for ligand binding (Pparg(P465L/+)). Cotreatment with the diuretic furosemide in wild-type mice attenuated rosiglitazone-induced CH, hypertrophic gene reprogramming, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, hypertrophy-related signal activation, and left ventricular dysfunction. Similar changes were observed in mice treated with pioglitazone. The diuretics spironolactone and trichlormethiazide, but not amiloride, attenuated rosiglitazone effects on volume expansion and CH. Interestingly, expression of glucose and lipid metabolism genes in the heart was altered by rosiglitazone, but these changes were not attenuated by furosemide cotreatment. Importantly, rosiglitazone-mediated whole-body metabolic improvements were not affected by furosemide cotreatment. We conclude that releasing plasma volume reduces adverse effects of TZD-induced volume expansion and cardiac events without compromising TZD actions in metabolic switch in the heart and whole-body insulin sensitivity.
- This Month in AJP. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2013 Nov 23.
The following highlights summarize research articles that are published in the current issue of The American Journal of Pathology.
- Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis by Spirulina. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2013 Nov 21.
Spirulina (SP) (Arthrospira platensis; previously Spirulina platensis) is a filamentous blue-green microalga (cyanobacterium) with potent dietary phytoantioxidant and anticancerous properties. We investigated the chemopreventive effect of SP against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat breast carcinogenesis, and further studied its underlying mechanisms of action in vitro. Remarkably, SP cleared DMBA-induced rat mammary tumors, which was clearly confirmed by morphological and histological methods. SP supplementation reduced the incidence of breast tumors from 87% to 13%. At the molecular level, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SP supplementation reduced expression of both Ki-67 and estrogen α. More interestingly, molecular analysis in the in vitro experiments indicated that SP treatment inhibited cell proliferation by 24 hours, which was accompanied by increased p53 expression, followed by increased expression of its downstream target gene, Cdkn1a (alias p21 or p21(Waf1/Cip1)). In addition, SP increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 expression, indicating induction of apoptosis by 48 hours after SP treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report of in vivo chemopreventive effect of SP against DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis in rat, supporting its potential use in chemoprevention of cancer.
- Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Hepatology: Beyond the Proof of Concept. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2013 Nov 20.
The discovery of the wide plasticity of most cell types means that it is now possible to produce virtually any cell type in vitro. This concept, developed because of the possibility of reprogramming somatic cells toward induced pluripotent stem cells, provides the opportunity to produce specialized cells that harbor multiple phenotypical traits, thus integrating genetic interindividual variability. The field of hepatology has exploited this concept, and hepatocyte-like cells can now be differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells. This review discusses the choice of somatic cells to be reprogrammed by emergent new and nonintegrative strategies, as well as the application of differentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells in hepatology, including liver development, disease modeling, host-pathogen interactions, and drug metabolism and toxicity. The actual consensus is that hepatocyte-like cells generated in vitro present an immature phenotype. Currently, developed strategies used to resolve this problem, such as overexpression of transcription factors, mimicking liver neonatal and postnatal modifications, and re-creating the three-dimensional hepatocyte environment in vitro and in vivo, are also discussed.
- Rac-Null Leukocytes Are Associated with Increased Inflammation-Mediated Alveolar Bone Loss. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2013 Nov 20.
Periodontal diseases are characterized by altered host-biofilm interactions that result in irreversible inflammation-mediated alveolar bone loss. Genetic and epigenetic factors that predispose to ineffective control of biofilm composition and maintenance of tissue homeostasis are not fully understood. We elucidated how leukocytes affect the course of periodontitis in Rac-null mice. Mouse models of acute gingivitis and periodontitis were used to assess the early inflammatory response and patterns of chronicity leading to loss of alveolar bone due to inflammation in Rac-null mice. Leukocyte margination was differentially impaired in these mice during attachment in conditional Rac1-null (granulocyte/monocyte lineage) mice and during rolling and attachment in Rac2-null (all blood cells) mice. Inflammatory responses to subgingival ligatures, assessed by changes in peripheral blood differential leukocyte numbers, were altered in Rac-null compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In response to persistent subgingival ligature-mediated challenge, Rac-null mice had increased loss of alveolar bone with patterns of resorption characteristic of aggressive forms of periodontitis. These findings were partially explained by higher osteoclastic activity in Rac-null compared with WT mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that leukocyte defects, such as decreased endothelial margination and tissue recruitment, are rate-limiting steps in the periodontal inflammatory process that lead to more aggressive forms of periodontitis.