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Am J Pathol [journal]
- Dietary Phosphorus Overload Aggravates the Phenotype of the Dystrophin-Deficient mdx Mouse. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Aug 28.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal X-linked disease with no effective treatment. Progressive muscle degeneration, increased macrophage infiltration, and ectopic calcification are characteristic features of the mdx mouse, a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Because dietary phosphorus/phosphate consumption is increasing and adverse effects of phosphate overloading have been reported in several disease conditions, we examined the effects of dietary phosphorus intake in mdx mice phenotypes. On weaning, control and mdx mice were fed diets containing 0.7, 1.0, or 2.0 g phosphorus per 100 g until they were 90 days old. Dystrophic phenotypes were evaluated in cryosections of quadriceps and tibialis anterior muscles, and maximal forces and voluntary activity were measured. Ectopic calcification was analyzed by electron microscopy to determine the cells initially responsible for calcium deposition in skeletal muscle. Dietary phosphorus overload dramatically exacerbated the dystrophic phenotypes of mdx mice by increasing inflammation associated with infiltration of M1 macrophages. In contrast, minimal muscle necrosis and inflammation were observed in exercised mdx mice fed a low-phosphorus diet, suggesting potential beneficial therapeutic effects of lowering dietary phosphorus intake on disease progression. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that dietary phosphorus intake directly affects muscle pathological characteristics of mdx mice. Dietary phosphorus overloading promoted dystrophic disease progression in mdx mice, whereas restricting dietary phosphorus intake improved muscle pathological characteristics and function.
- A High Serum Iron Level Causes Mouse Retinal Iron Accumulation Despite an Intact Blood-Retinal Barrier. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Aug 28.
The retina can be shielded by the blood-retinal barrier. Because photoreceptors are damaged by excess iron, it is important to understand whether the blood-retinal barrier protects against high serum iron levels. Bone morphogenic protein 6 (Bmp6) knockout mice have serum iron overload. Herein, we tested whether the previously documented retinal iron accumulation in Bmp6 knockout mice might result from the high serum iron levels or, alternatively, low levels of retinal hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone whose transcription can be up-regulated by Bmp6. Furthermore, to determine whether increases in serum iron can elevate retinal iron levels, we i.v. injected iron into wild-type mice. Retinas were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence to assess the levels of iron-regulated genes/proteins and oxidative stress. Retinal hepcidin mRNA levels in Bmp6 knockout retinas were the same as, or greater than, those in age-matched wild-type retinas, indicating that Bmp6 knockout does not cause retinal hepcidin deficiency. Changes in mRNA levels of L ferritin and transferrin receptor indicated increased retinal iron levels in i.v. iron-injected wild-type mice. Oxidative stress markers were elevated in photoreceptors of mice receiving i.v. iron. These findings suggest that elevated serum iron levels can overwhelm local retinal iron regulatory mechanisms.
- MyD88 Is Dispensable for Cerebral Amyloidosis and Neuroinflammation in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Aug 28.
Activated microglia are associated with amyloid plaques in transgenic mouse models of cerebral amyloidosis and in human Alzheimer disease; yet, their implication in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis remains unclear. It has been suggested that microglia play dual roles depending on the context of activation, contributing negatively to disease pathogenesis by secreting proinflammatory innate cytokines or performing a beneficial role via phagocytosis of amyloid beta (Aβ) deposits. Toll-like receptors, most of which signal through the adaptor protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), have been suggested as candidate Aβ innate pattern recognition receptors. It was recently reported that MyD88 deficiency reduced brain amyloid pathology and microglial activation. To assess a putative role of MyD88 in cerebral amyloidosis and glial activation in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) mice, we crossed MyD88-deficient (MyD88(-/-)) mice with APP/PS1 mice, interbred first filial offspring, and studied APP/PS1 MyD88(+/+), APP/PS1 MyD88(+/-), and APP/PS1 MyD88(-/-) cohorts. Biochemical analysis of detergent-soluble and detergent-insoluble Aβ1-40 or Aβ1-42 in brain homogenates did not reveal significant between-group differences. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed on amyloid plaque load or soluble fibrillar Aβ by quantitative immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, neither activated microglia nor astrocytes differed among the three groups. These data suggest that MyD88 signaling is dispensable for Aβ-induced glial activation and does not significantly affect the nature or extent of cerebral β-amyloidosis in APP/PS1 mice.
- Impaired Bone Resorption and Woven Bone Formation Are Associated with Development of Osteonecrosis of the Jaw-Like Lesions by Bisphosphonate and Anti- Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand Antibody in Mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Aug 27.
Drug-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a detrimental intraoral lesion that often occurs after dental-related interventions in patients undergoing treatment with bisphosphonates or denosumab, the neutralizing human anti-receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) antibody (Ab). The cause of ONJ by these drugs has been speculated to their direct effects on osteoclasts. However, the extent to which osteoclasts contribute to ONJ pathogenesis remains controversial. Herein, by using a tooth-extraction mouse model with i.v. administration of mouse anti-RANKL Ab or zoledronate (ZOL), we show that unresorbed bone due to impaired formation or suppressed functions of osteoclasts, respectively, is associated with ONJ development. After tooth extraction, ONJ-like lesions developed 50% in the anti-RANKL Ab-treated mice and 30% in the ZOL-treated mice. Nonviable and unresorbed bone was found more in anti-RANKL Ab-treated mice compared with mice receiving ZOL. All mice receiving anti-RANKL Ab had an undetectable tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) level in the serum and no TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the extracted sockets, whereas ZOL-treated mice had a decreased TRAP level without altering the numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts. Interestingly, the absence of newly formed woven bone in the extracted sockets was evident in ONJ-like lesions from both anti-RANKL Ab- and ZOL-treated mice. Our study suggests that the lack of osteoclasts' bone-resorptive functions by these drugs and suppression of woven bone formation after dental trauma may be associated with ONJ development.
- This Month in AJP. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Aug 27.
The following highlights summarize research articles that are published in the current issue of The American Journal of Pathology.
- B Cells Promote Tumor Immunity against B16F10 Melanoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Aug 27.
B cells are known to be critical mediators of tumor immunity; however, the mechanisms through which they exert this function remain unclear. B-cell linker protein (BLNK) is an essential component of the B-cell antigen receptor signaling machinery and is required for B-cell development, as evidenced by BLNK-deficient (BLNK(-/-)) mice, in which the development and function of B cells are severely impaired. Herein, we evaluated the role of B cells in the development of tumor immunity against B16F10 melanoma using BLNK(-/-) mice. B16F10 melanoma grew more aggressively in BLNK(-/-) mice, resulting in a twofold increase in tumor volume compared with wild-type mice. As predicted, tumor-infiltrating B-cell numbers were decreased in BLNK(-/-) mice. Paradoxically, tumor-infiltrating T-cell numbers were decreased in BLNK(-/-) mice, although inguinal lymph node T-cell numbers were increased. Adoptive transfer of B cells from wild-type mice into BLNK(-/-) mice attenuated B16F10 melanoma growth, with increasing numbers of B and T cells infiltrating into tumors. In addition, percentages of interferon-γ- and tumor necrosis factor-α-producing tumor-infiltrating T cells were restored. Taken together, our study supports the concept that B cells enhance tumor immunity against B16F10 melanoma by promoting T-cell infiltration into tumors and cytokine production within the tumor microenvironment.
- Evidence that Meningeal Mast Cells Can Worsen Stroke Pathology in Mice. [Journal Article]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Sep; 184(9):2493-504.
Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability and the fourth most common cause of death in the United States. Inflammation is thought to play an important role in stroke pathology, but the factors that promote inflammation in this setting remain to be fully defined. An understudied but important factor is the role of meningeal-located immune cells in modulating brain pathology. Although different immune cells traffic through meningeal vessels en route to the brain, mature mast cells do not circulate but are resident in the meninges. With the use of genetic and cell transfer approaches in mice, we identified evidence that meningeal mast cells can importantly contribute to the key features of stroke pathology, including infiltration of granulocytes and activated macrophages, brain swelling, and infarct size. We also obtained evidence that two mast cell-derived products, interleukin-6 and, to a lesser extent, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7, can contribute to stroke pathology. These findings indicate a novel role for mast cells in the meninges, the membranes that envelop the brain, as potential gatekeepers for modulating brain inflammation and pathology after stroke.
- Myeloid-Derived Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Promotes Macrophage Motility through FAK, Rac1, and NF-κB Pathways. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Aug 12.
Macrophage accumulation is one of the hallmarks of progressive kidney disease. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is known to promote macrophage infiltration and renal inflammation during chronic kidney injury. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. We examined the role of tPA in macrophage motility in vivo by tracking fluorescence-labeled bone marrow-derived macrophages, and found that tPA-deficient mice had markedly fewer infiltrating fluorescence-labeled macrophages than the wild-type (WT) mice. Experiments in bone marrow chimeric mice further demonstrated that myeloid cells are the main source of endogenous tPA that promotes macrophage migration. In vitro studies showed that tPA promoted macrophage motility through its CD11b-mediated protease-independent function; and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Rac-1, and NF-κB were indispensable to tPA-induced macrophage migration as either infection of FAK dominant-negative adenovirus or treatment with a Rac-1-specific inhibitor or NF-κB inhibitor abolished the effect of tPA. Moreover, ectopic FAK mimicked tPA and induced macrophage motility. tPA also activated migratory signaling in vivo. The accumulation of phospho-FAK-positive CD11b macrophages in the obstructed kidneys from WT mice was clearly attenuated in tPA knockout mice, which also displayed lower Rac-1 activity than their WT counterparts. Therefore, our results indicate that myeloid-derived tPA promotes macrophage migration through a novel signaling cascade involving FAK, Rac-1, and NF-κB.
- Single-Cell Genetic Analysis Reveals Insights into Clonal Development of Prostate Cancers and Indicates Loss of PTEN as a Marker of Poor Prognosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Aug 14.
Gauging the risk of developing progressive disease is a major challenge in prostate cancer patient management. We used genetic markers to understand genomic alteration dynamics during disease progression. By using a novel, advanced, multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization approach, we enumerated copy numbers of six genes previously identified by array comparative genome hybridization to be involved in aggressive prostate cancer [TBL1XR1, CTTNBP2, MYC (alias c-myc), PTEN, MEN1, and PDGFB] in six nonrecurrent and seven recurrent radical prostatectomy cases. An ERG break-apart probe to detect TMPRSS2-ERG fusions was included. Subsequent hybridization of probe panels and cell relocation resulted in signal counts for all probes in each individual cell analyzed. Differences in the degree of chromosomal and genomic instability (ie, tumor heterogeneity) or the percentage of cells with TMPRSS2-ERG fusion between samples with or without progression were not observed. Tumors from patients that progressed had more chromosomal gains and losses, and showed a higher degree of selection for a predominant clonal pattern. PTEN loss was the most frequent aberration in progressors (57%), followed by TBL1XR1 gain (29%). MYC gain was observed in one progressor, which was the only lesion with an ERG gain, but no TMPRSS2-ERG fusion. According to our results, a probe set consisting of PTEN, MYC, and TBL1XR1 would detect progressors with 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity. This will be evaluated further in larger studies.
- Nerve Conduction Velocity Is Regulated by the Inositol Polyphosphate-4-Phosphatase II Gene. [Journal Article]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Sep; 184(9):2420-9.
Impairment of nerve conduction is common in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), and measurement of evoked potentials (visual, motor, or sensory) has been widely used for diagnosis and recently also as a prognostic marker for MS. We used a classical genetic approach to identify novel genes controlling nerve conduction. First, we used quantitative trait mapping in F2 progeny of B10/SJL mice to identify EAE31, a locus controlling latency of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and clinical onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Then, by combining congenic mapping, in silico haplotype analyses, and comparative genomics we identified inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type II (Inpp4b) as the quantitative trait gene for EAE31. Sequence variants of Inpp4b (C/A, exon 13; A/C, exon 14) were identified as differing among multiple mouse strains and correlated with individual cortical MEP latency differences. To evaluate the functional relevance of the amino acid exchanges at positions S474R and H548P, we generated transgenic mice carrying the longer-latency allele (Inpp4b(474R/548P)) in the C57BL/6J background. Inpp4b(474R/548P) mice exhibited significantly longer cortical MEP latencies (4.5 ± 0.22 ms versus 3.7 ± 0.13 ms; P = 1.04 × 10(-9)), indicating that INPP4B regulates nerve conduction velocity. An association of an INPP4B polymorphism (rs13102150) with MS was observed in German and Spanish MS cohorts (3676 controls and 911 cases) (P = 8.8 × 10(-3)).