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Am J Pathol [journal]
- Spontaneous Development of Autoimmune Uveitis is CCR2 Dependent. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Apr 12.
Development of novel strategies to treat noninfectious posterior uveitis is an ongoing challenge, in part because of limited availability of animal models that mimic the naturally occurring disease in humans. Mice deficient in the autoimmune regulatory gene Aire develop a spontaneous T-cell and macrophage-mediated autoimmune uveitis that closely recapitulates human endogenous uveitis and thus provide a useful model for mechanistic and therapeutic investigations. Lymphocytic and mononuclear infiltration of the retina in Aire knockout (KO) mice triggers the onset of uveitis from initial retinal inflammation to eventual destruction of the neuroretina with loss of photoreceptors. The C-C chemokine receptor type 2 protein (CCR2) functions in directing monocyte and macrophage migration to inflamed tissues via interaction with monocyte chemotactic proteins. Using the Aire KO mouse model, we demonstrated an essential role for CCR2 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune-mediated uveitis. Loss of functional CCR2 effectively reduced immune cell infiltration and rescued the retina from destruction. CCR2-dependent migration of bone marrow-derived cells provided the driving force for retinal inflammation, with CCR2-expressing mononuclear cells contributing to retinal damage via recruitment of CD4(+) T cells. These studies identify the CCR2 pathway as a promising therapeutic target that may prove an effective approach to treat uveitis associated with autoimmunity.
- T Cells Infiltrate the Liver and Kill Hepatocytes in HLA-B(∗)57:01-Associated Floxacillin-Induced Liver Injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Apr 9.
Drug-induced liver injury is a major safety issue. It can cause severe disease and is a common cause of the withdrawal of drugs from the pharmaceutical market. Recent studies have identified the HLA-B(∗)57:01 allele as a risk factor for floxacillin (FLUX)-induced liver injury and have suggested a role for cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells in the pathomechanism of liver injury caused by FLUX. This study aimed to confirm the importance of FLUX-reacting cytotoxic lymphocytes in the pathomechanism of liver injury and to dissect the involved mechanisms of cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity of FLUX-reacting T cells from 10 HLA-B(∗)57:01(+) healthy donors toward autologous target cells and HLA-B(∗)57:01-transduced hepatocytes was analyzed in vitro. Cytotoxicity of FLUX-reacting T cells was concentration-dependent and required concentrations in the range of peak serum levels after FLUX administration. Killing of target cells was mediated by different cytotoxic mechanisms. IHC staining of a liver biopsy from a patient with FLUX-induced liver injury revealed periportal inflammation and the infiltration of cytotoxic CD3(+) CD8(+) lymphocytes into the liver. The infiltration of cytotoxic lymphocytes into the liver of a patient with FLUX-induced liver injury demonstrates the importance of FLUX-reacting T cells in the underlying pathomechanism. Our findings emphasize the role of the adaptive immune system and especially of activated drug-reacting T cells in human leukocyte antigen-associated, drug-induced liver injury.
- STAT4 Knockout Mice Are More Susceptible to Concanavalin A-Induced T-Cell Hepatitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Apr 11.
STAT4, which is activated mainly by IL-12, promotes inflammatory responses by inducing Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Recent genome-wide association studies indicate that STAT4 gene variants are associated with risk of various types of liver diseases, but how STAT4 contributes to liver disease pathogenesis remains obscure. In this study, STAT4 activation was detected in liver immune cells from patients with viral hepatitis and autoimmune hepatitis, as well as in a mouse model of concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis. Such STAT4 activation was detected mainly in T cells, natural killer T cells, and macrophages and Kupffer cells, and was diminished in Il12a(-/-) and Il12b(-/-) mice. As expected, disruption of the Stat4 gene reduced production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, but surprisingly exacerbated Con A-induced liver injury. Similarly, ablation of Il12a or Il12b also augmented Con A-induced hepatocellular damage. Further studies showed that hepatic natural killer T (NKT) cells from Con A-treated Stat4(-/-) mice had higher levels of FasL expression and increased cytotoxicity against hepatocytes than those from Con A-treated WT mice. In vitro, blocking FasL attenuated Stat4(-/-) NKT cytotoxicity against hepatocytes. In conclusion, despite up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines, STAT4 protects against acute T-cell hepatitis, which is mediated by direct or indirect down-regulation of FasL expression on NKT cells.
- LOX-1 Is a Novel Therapeutic Target in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Apr 11.
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains a serious burden in neonatal care. Hypothermia provides a good outcome in some babies with HIE. Here, we investigated the biological mechanisms of its neuroprotective effect and sought for a new therapeutic target. We made neonatal HIE rats and subjected some of them to hypothermia at 28°C for 3 hours. We pathologically confirmed the efficacy of hypothermia against the neonatal HIE brain. To clarify the molecular mechanism of hypothermia's efficacy, we analyzed mRNA expression, immunoassay, and pathology in the brain with or without HIE and/or hypothermia. We selected from these analyses 12 molecules with possible neuroprotective effects. After identification of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) as a therapeutic target candidate, we examined the efficacy of an anti-LOX-1 neutralizing antibody in neonatal HIE rats. Administration of an anti-LOX-1 neutralizing antibody reduced infarction area, brain edema, and apoptotic cell death to a degree comparable with hypothermia. Protection from those pathological conditions was considered part of the therapeutic mechanism of hypothermia. The efficacy of administering anti-LOX-1 neutralizing antibody was similar to that of hypothermia. LOX-1 is a promising therapeutic target in neonatal HIE, and the inhibition of LOX-1 may become a novel treatment for babies who have experienced asphyxia.
- Inducing a Visceral Organ to Protect a Peripheral Capillary Bed: Stabilizing Hepatic HIF-1α Prevents Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Apr 11.
Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) can prevent oxygen-induced retinopathy in rodents. Here we demonstrate that dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG)-induced retinovascular protection is dependent on hepatic HIF-1 because mice deficient in liver-specific HIF-1α experience hyperoxia-induced damage even with DMOG treatment, whereas DMOG-treated wild-type mice have 50% less avascular retina (P < 0.001). Hepatic HIF stabilization protects retinal function because DMOG normalizes the b-wave on electroretinography in wild-type mice. The localization of DMOG action to the liver is further supported by evidence that i) mRNA and protein erythropoietin levels within liver and serum increased in DMOG-treated wild-type animals but are reduced by 60% in liver-specific HIF-1α knockout mice treated with DMOG, ii) triple-positive (Sca1/cKit/VEGFR2), bone-marrow-derived endothelial precursor cells increased twofold in DMOG-treated wild-type mice (P < 0.001) but are unchanged in hepatic HIF-1α knockout mice in response to DMOG, and iii) hepatic luminescence in the luciferase oxygen-dependent degradation domain mouse was induced by subcutaneous and intraperitoneal DMOG. These findings uncover a novel endocrine mechanism for retinovascular protection. Activating HIF in visceral organs such as the liver may be a simple strategy to protect capillary beds in the retina and in other peripheral tissues.
- Glucose Specifically Regulates TRPC6 Expression in the Podocyte in an AngII-Dependent Manner. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Apr 11.
Slit diaphragm and podocyte damage is crucial in proteinuria pathogenesis in diabetic nephropathy (DNP). Gain-of-function mutations in TRPC6, a slit diaphragm-associated ion channel, cause glomerulosclerosis; TRPC6 expression is increased in acquired glomerular disease. Hyperglycemia and high intrarenal angiotensin II (AngII) levels could contribute to podocyte injury in DNP. We determined whether glucose regulates TRPC6 expression and TRPC6-mediated Ca(2+) influx into the podocyte and whether these effects are AngII dependent. High glucose levels increased TRPC6 mRNA and protein expression in cultured podocytes; however, TRPC1 and TRPC5 mRNA expression was unaltered. AngII and induced podocyte injury also specifically increased TRPC6 expression. Angiotensin receptor blockade and inhibition of local AngII production through angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition prevented glucose-mediated increased TRPC6 expression. In addition, high glucose concentration pretreatment enhanced Ca(2+) influx in podocytes, which was prevented by concomitant angiotensin receptor blockade application and TRPC6 knockdown. Studies with a TRPC6 luciferase promoter construct demonstrated a glucose concentration-dependent effect on TRPC6 promoter activity. In vivo, podocyte TRPC6 protein expression was increased in proteinuric streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. These data suggest that glucose can activate a local renin-angiotensin system in the podocyte, leading to increased TRPC6 expression, which enhances TRPC6-mediated Ca(2+) influx. Regulation of TRPC6 expression could be an important factor in podocyte injury due to chronic hyperglycemia and the antiproteinuric effect of angiotensin receptor blockade or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in DNP.
- Endothelin-1 Activation of the Endothelin B Receptor Modulates Pulmonary Endothelial CX3CL1 and Contributes to Pulmonary Angiogenesis in Experimental Hepatopulmonary Syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Apr 11.
Hepatic production and release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) binding to endothelin B (ETB) receptors, overexpressed in the lung microvasculature, is associated with accumulation of pro-angiogenic monocytes and vascular remodeling in experimental hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) after common bile duct ligation (CBDL). We have recently found that lung vascular monocyte adhesion and angiogenesis in HPS involve interaction of endothelial C-X3-C motif ligand 1 (CX3CL1) with monocyte CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1), although whether ET-1/ETB receptor activation influences these events is unknown. Our aim was to define if ET-1/ETB receptor activation modulates CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling and lung angiogenesis in experimental HPS. A selective ETB receptor antagonist, BQ788, was given for 2 weeks to 1-week-old rats with CBDL. ET-1 (±BQ788) was given to cultured rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells overexpressing ETB receptors. BQ788 treatment significantly decreased lung angiogenesis, monocyte accumulation, and CX3CL1 levels after CBDL. ET-1 treatment significantly induced CX3CL1 production in lung microvascular endothelial cells, which was blocked by inhibitors of Ca(2+) and mutant of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-2/ERK pathways. ET-1-induced ERK activation was Ca(2+) independent. ET-1 administration also increased endothelial tube formation in vitro, which was inhibited by BQ788 or by blocking Ca(2+) and mutant of ERK-2/ERK activation. CX3CR1 neutralizing antibody partially inhibited ET-1 effects on tube formation. These findings identify a novel mechanistic interaction between the ET-1/ETB receptor axis and CX3CL1/CX3CR1 in mediating pulmonary angiogenesis and vascular monocyte accumulation in experimental HPS.
- Neutrophil Dependence of Vascular Remodeling after Mycoplasma Infection of Mouse Airways. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Apr 10.
Vascular remodeling is a feature of sustained inflammation in which capillaries enlarge and acquire the phenotype of venules specialized for plasma leakage and leukocyte recruitment. We sought to determine whether neutrophils are required for vascular remodeling in the respiratory tract by using Mycoplasma pulmonis infection as a model of sustained inflammation in mice. The time course of vascular remodeling coincided with the influx of neutrophils during the first few days after infection and peaked at day 5. Depletion of neutrophils with antibody RB6-8C5 or 1A8 reduced neutrophil influx and vascular remodeling after infection by about 90%. Similarly, vascular remodeling after infection was suppressed in Cxcr2(-/-) mice, in which neutrophils adhered to the endothelium of venules but did not extravasate into the tissue. Expression of the venular adhesion molecule P-selectin increased in endothelial cells from day 1 to day 3 after infection, as did expression of the Cxcr2-receptor ligands Cxcl1 and Cxcl2. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) expression increased more than sixfold in the trachea of wild-type and Cxcr2(-/-) mice, but intratracheal administration of TNFα did not induce vascular remodeling similar to that seen in infection. We conclude that neutrophil influx is required for remodeling of capillaries into venules in the airways of mice with Mycoplasma infection and that TNFα signaling is necessary but not sufficient for vascular remodeling.
- RB Tumor Suppressive Function in Response to Xenobiotic Hepatocarcinogens. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Apr 10.
Diverse etiologic events are associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. During hepatocarcinogenesis, genetic events likely occur that subsequently cooperate with long-term exposures to further drive the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, the frequent loss of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma was modeled in response to diverse hepatic stresses. Loss of RB did not significantly affect the response to a steatotic stress as driven by a methionine- and choline-deficient diet. In addition, RB status did not significantly influence the response to peroxisome proliferators that can drive hepatomegaly and tumor development in rodents. However, RB loss exhibited a highly significant effect on the response to the xenobiotic1,4-Bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene. Loss of RB yielded a unique proliferative response to this agent, which was distinct from both regenerative stresses and genotoxic carcinogens. Long-term exposure to 1,4-Bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene yielded profound tumor development in RB-deficient livers that was principally absent in RB-sufficient tissue. These data demonstrate the context specificity of RB and the key role RB plays in the suppression of hepatocellular carcinoma driven by xenobiotic stress.
- IRF-3, IRF-7, and IPS-1 Promote Host Defense against Acute Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Neonatal Mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Apr 10.
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a leading cause of respiratory tract disease in children and is associated with acute bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and asthma exacerbations, yet the mechanisms by which the host immune response to hMPV is regulated are poorly understood. By using gene-deleted neonatal mice, we examined the contributions of the innate receptor signaling molecules interferon (IFN)-β promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1), IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 3, and IRF7. Viral load in the lungs was markedly greater in IPS-1(-/-) > IRF3/7(-/-) > IRF3(-/-), but not IRF7(-/-), mice compared with wild-type mice. IFN-β and IFN-λ2/3 (IL-28A/B) production was attenuated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in all factor-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice at 1 day after infection, although IFN-λ2/3 was greater in IRF3/7(-/-) mice at 5 days after infection. IRF7(-/-) and IRF3/7(-/-) mice presented with airway eosinophilia, whereas only IRF3/7(-/-) mice developed an exaggerated type 1 and 17 helper T-cell response, characterized by natural killer T-cell and neutrophilic inflammation. Despite having the highest viral load, IPS-1(-/-) mice did not develop a proinflammatory cytokine or granulocytic response to hMPV infection. Our findings demonstrate that IFN-β, but not IFN-λ2/3, produced via an IPS-1-IRF3 signaling pathway, is important for hMPV clearance. In the absence of a robust type I IFN-α/β response, targeting the IPS-1 signaling pathway may limit the overexuberant inflammatory response that occurs as a consequence of viral persistence.