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Am J Pathol [journal]
- RhoA GTPase-Induced Ocular Hypertension in a Rodent Model Is Associated with Increased Fibrogenic Activity in the Trabecular Meshwork. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Dec 11.
Ocular hypertension arising from increased resistance to aqueous humor (AH) outflow through the trabecular meshwork is a primary risk factor for open-angle glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness. Ongoing efforts have found little about the molecular and cellular bases of increased resistance to AH outflow through the trabecular meshwork in ocular hypertension patients. To test the hypothesis that dysregulated Rho GTPase signaling and a resulting fibrotic activity within the trabecular meshwork may result in ocular hypertension, we investigated the effects of expressing a constitutively active RhoA GTPase (RhoAV14) in the AH outflow pathway in Sprague-Dawley rats by using lentiviral vector-based gene delivery. Rats expressing RhoAV14 in the iridocorneal angle exhibited a significantly elevated intraocular pressure. Elevated intraocular pressure in the RhoAV14-expressing rats was associated with fibrotic trabecular meshwork and increased levels of F-actin, phosphorylated myosin light chain, α-smooth muscle actin, collagen-1A, and total collagen in the trabecular AH outflow pathway. Most of these changes were ameliorated by topical application of Rho kinase inhibitor. Human autopsy eyes from patients with glaucoma exhibited significant increases in levels of collagen-1A and total collagen in the trabecular AH outflow pathway. Collectively, these observations indicate that increased fibrogenic activity because of dysregulated RhoA GTPase activity in the trabecular AH outflow pathway increases intraocular pressure in a Rho kinase-dependent manner.
- Inhibition of Multidrug Transporter in Tumor Endothelial Cells Enhances Antiangiogenic Effects of Low-Dose Metronomic Paclitaxel. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Dec 8.
Tumor angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. Tumor endothelial cells (TECs) are a therapeutic target of antiangiogenic chemotherapy that was recently developed and is currently being investigated in the clinic with promising results. Low-dose chemotherapy, which is the long-term administration of relatively low doses of chemotherapeutic agents, has been proposed for targeting tumor angiogenesis in various types of cancers. Although the efficacy of low-dose chemotherapy has been confirmed in several clinical models, some studies show insufficient therapeutic effect for malignant cancers. As a possible mechanism of the treatment failure, it has been considered that tumor cells may acquire resistance to this therapy. However, drug resistance by TECs may also be due to another mechanism for resistance of tumor cells to low-dose chemotherapy. We reported elsewhere that TECs were resistant to the anticancer drug paclitaxel, which is a mitotic inhibitor, concomitant with P-glycoprotein up-regulation. Verapamil, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, abrogated TEC resistance in vitro. Herein, we demonstrated that verapamil coadministration enhanced the effects of low-dose paclitaxel concomitant with inhibiting tumor angiogenesis in a preclinical in vivo mouse melanoma xenograft model. Furthermore, verapamil coadministration reduced lung metastasis. These results suggest that inhibiting P-glycoprotein in TECs may be a novel strategy for low-dose chemotherapy targeting TECs.
- Chemotherapy-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension: Role of Alkylating Agents. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Dec 10.
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is an uncommon form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) characterized by progressive obstruction of small pulmonary veins and a dismal prognosis. Limited case series have reported a possible association between different chemotherapeutic agents and PVOD. We evaluated the relationship between chemotherapeutic agents and PVOD. Cases of chemotherapy-induced PVOD from the French PH network and literature were reviewed. Consequences of chemotherapy exposure on the pulmonary vasculature and hemodynamics were investigated in three different animal models (mouse, rat, and rabbit). Thirty-seven cases of chemotherapy-associated PVOD were identified in the French PH network and systematic literature analysis. Exposure to alkylating agents was observed in 83.8% of cases, mostly represented by cyclophosphamide (43.2%). In three different animal models, cyclophosphamide was able to induce PH on the basis of hemodynamic, morphological, and biological parameters. In these models, histopathological assessment confirmed significant pulmonary venous involvement highly suggestive of PVOD. Together, clinical data and animal models demonstrated a plausible cause-effect relationship between alkylating agents and PVOD. Clinicians should be aware of this uncommon, but severe, pulmonary vascular complication of alkylating agents.
- M2b Macrophage Elimination and Improved Resistance of Mice with Chronic Alcohol Consumption to Opportunistic Infections. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Dec 5.
Alcohol abuse was found to predispose persons to opportunistic infections. In this study, we tried to improve the host antibacterial resistance of chronic alcohol-consuming (CAC) mice to opportunistic infections. Bactericidal macrophages with functions to produce IL-12 and to express mRNAs for CXCL9 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (M1 macrophages) were characterized as the main effector cells in host antibacterial innate immunities against infections with opportunistic pathogens. However, CAC mice were found to be carriers of M2b macrophages [macrophages with functions to produce IL-10 and to express mRNAs for CD163, chemokine ligand (CCL)1, and LIGHT (homologous to lymphotoxin, exhibits inducible expression, competes with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D for high-voltage electron microscopy on T cells)], which were inhibitory on macrophage conversion from resident macrophages to M1 macrophages. Under treatment with CCL1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, a specific inhibitor of M2b macrophages, CAC mouse macrophages reverted to resident macrophages, and M1 macrophages were induced by a bacterial antigen from macrophages of CAC mice that were previously treated with the oligodeoxynucleotides. Opportunistic infections (enterococcal translocation and Klebsiella pneumonia) in CAC mice were completely controlled by CCL1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. These results indicate that certain opportunistic infections in alcoholics are controllable through the modulation of M2b macrophages.
- Recurrent Mutations within the Amino-Terminal Region of β-Catenin Are Probable Key Molecular Driver Events in Sinonasal Hemangiopericytoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Dec 4.
Sinonasal hemangiopericytoma (SN-HPC) is an uncommon, site-specific, low-grade mesenchymal neoplasm of probable perivascular myoid cell origin. In contrast to solitary fibrous tumors of soft tissue and sinonasal tract origin, SN-HPCs were recently shown to lack recurrent NAB2-STAT6 fusion variants. Other molecular alterations known to occur in some of soft tissue perivascular myoid cell neoplasms were also absent in SN-HPC; thus, the molecular pathogenesis of SN-HPCs remained unknown. Guided by whole-genome sequencing combined with RNA sequencing of an index case, we analyzed a total of six SN-HPCs for mutations within the amino-terminal region of the gene catenin (cadherin-associated protein), β 1, 88 kDa (CTNNB1), encoding for β-catenin. All six cases showed missense mutations, with amino acid substitutions clustering at positions 33 to 45, corresponding to the recognition site of the β-catenin destruction complex. Similar CTNNB1 mutations have been described in a variety of epithelial and mesenchymal neoplasms. These mutations prevent β-catenin phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation but promote its nuclear accumulation and subsequent increased transcription of Wingless-related integration site target genes. Consistent with these molecular findings, β-catenin IHC showed consistent diffuse and strong nuclear staining of the tumor cells in all six SN-HPCs. Our results highlight, for the first time, CTNNB1 mutations as the likely initiating molecular events driving SN-HPC tumorigenesis, which places SN-HPC among the growing family of β-catenin-driven mesenchymal neoplasms.
- Astrocytic Dynamin-Like Protein 1 Regulates Neuronal Protection against Excitotoxicity in Parkinson Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Dec 4.
Mitochondrial dynamics has recently become an area of piqued interest in neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD); however, the contribution of astrocytes to these disorders remains unclear. Herein, we show that the level of dynamin-like protein 1 (Dlp1; official name DNM1L), which promotes mitochondrial fission, is lower in astrocytes from the brains of PD patients, and that decreased astrocytic Dlp1 likely represents a relatively early event in PD pathogenesis. In support of this conclusion, we show that Dlp1 knockdown dramatically affects mitochondrial morphological characteristics and localization in astrocytes, impairs the ability of astrocytes to adequately protect neurons from the excitotoxic effects of glutamate, and increases intracellular calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (Ca(2+)) in response to extracellular glutamate, resulting from compromised intracellular Ca(2+) buffering. Taken together, our results suggest that astrocytic mitochondrial Dlp1 is a key protein in mitochondrial dynamics and decreased Dlp1 may interfere with neuron survival in PD by disrupting Ca(2+)-coupled glutamate uptake.
- Human Mannose-Binding Lectin Inhibitor Prevents Myocardial Injury and Arterial Thrombogenesis in a Novel Animal Model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Dec 4.
Myocardial infarction and coagulation disorders are leading causes of disability and death in the world. An important role of the lectin complement pathway in myocardial infarction and coagulation has been demonstrated in mice genetically deficient in lectin complement pathway proteins. However, these studies are limited to comparisons between wild-type and deficient mice and lack the ability to examine reversal/inhibition of injury after disease establishment. We developed a novel mouse that expresses functional human mannose-binding lectin (MBL) 2 under the control of Mbl1 promoter. Serum MBL2 concentrations averaged approximately 3 μg/mL in MBL2(+/+)Mbl1(-/-)Mbl2(-/-) (MBL2 KI) mice. Serum MBL2 level in MBL2 KI mice significantly increased after 7 (8 μg/mL) or 14 (9 μg/mL) days of hyperglycemia compared to normoglycemic mice (P < 0.001). Monoclonal antibody 3F8 inhibited C3 deposition on mannan-coated plates in MBL2 KI, but not wild-type, mice. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in MBL2 KI mice revealed that 3F8 preserved cardiac function and decreased infarct size and fibrin deposition in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, 3F8 prevented ferric chloride-induced occlusive arterial thrombogenesis in vivo. MBL2 KI mice represent a novel animal model that can be used to study the lectin complement pathway in acute and chronic models of human disease. Furthermore, these novel mice demonstrate the therapeutic window for MBL2 inhibition for effective treatment of disease and its complications.
- Type I Interferon Contributes to Noncanonical Inflammasome Activation, Mediates Immunopathology, and Impairs Protective Immunity during Fatal Infection with Lipopolysaccharide-Negative Ehrlichiae. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Dec 3.
Ehrlichia species are intracellular bacteria that cause fatal ehrlichiosis, mimicking toxic shock syndrome in humans and mice. Virulent ehrlichiae induce inflammasome activation leading to caspase-1 cleavage and IL-18 secretion, which contribute to development of fatal ehrlichiosis. We show that fatal infection triggers expression of inflammasome components, activates caspase-1 and caspase-11, and induces host-cell death and secretion of IL-1β, IL-1α, and type I interferon (IFN-I). Wild-type and Casp1(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to fatal ehrlichiosis, had overwhelming infection, and developed extensive tissue injury. Nlrp3(-/-) mice effectively cleared ehrlichiae, but displayed acute mortality and developed liver injury similar to wild-type mice. By contrast, Ifnar1(-/-) mice were highly resistant to fatal disease and had lower bacterial burden, attenuated pathology, and prolonged survival. Ifnar1(-/-) mice also had improved protective immune responses mediated by IFN-γ and CD4(+) Th1 and natural killer T cells, with lower IL-10 secretion by T cells. Importantly, heightened resistance of Ifnar1(-/-) mice correlated with improved autophagosome processing, and attenuated noncanonical inflammasome activation indicated by decreased activation of caspase-11 and decreased IL-1β, compared with other groups. Our findings demonstrate that IFN-I signaling promotes host susceptibility to fatal ehrlichiosis, because it mediates ehrlichia-induced immunopathology and supports bacterial replication, perhaps via activation of noncanonical inflammasomes, reduced autophagy, and suppression of protective CD4(+) T cells and natural killer T-cell responses against ehrlichiae.
- Corrections. [Journal Article]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Dec; 184(12):3415.
- This Month in AJP. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Dec 2.
The following highlights summarize research articles that are published in the current issue of The American Journal of Pathology.