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Am J Pathol [journal]
- Syndecan 4 Signaling and Intervertebral Disc Degeneration. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Jul 26.
This commentary highlights the article by Wang et al, exploring the regulatory relationship between matrix metalloproteinase-3 and syndecan 4 in disc degeneration.
- Interferon γ Protects First-Trimester Decidual Cells against Aberrant Matrix Metalloproteinase 1, 3, and 9 Expression in Preeclampsia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Jul 24.
Human extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invades the decidua via integrin receptors and subsequently degrades extracellular matrix proteins. In preeclampsia (PE), shallow EVT invasion elicits incomplete spiral artery remodeling, causing reduced uteroplacental blood flow. Previous studies show that preeclamptic decidual cells, but not interstitial EVTs, display higher levels of extracellular matrix-degrading matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, but not MMP-2. Herein, we extend our previous PE-related assessment of MMP-2 and MMP-9 to include MMP-1, which preferentially degrades fibrillar collagens, and MMP-3, which can initiate a local proteolytic cascade. In human first-trimester decidual cells incubated with estradiol, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) significantly enhanced MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9 mRNA and protein levels and activity measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA, immunoblotting, and zymography, respectively. In contrast, interferon γ (IFN-γ) reversed these effects and medroxyprogesterone acetate elicited further reversal. Immunoblotting revealed that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling mediated TNF-α enhancement of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9, whereas IFN-γ inhibited p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Unlike highly regulated MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9, MMP-2 mRNA and protein expression was constitutive in decidual cells. Because inflammation underlies PE-associated shallow EVT invasion, these results suggest that excess macrophage-derived TNF-α augments expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9 in decidual cells to interfere with normal stepwise EVT invasion of the decidua. In contrast, decidual natural killer cell-derived IFN-γ reverses such TNF-α-induced MMPs to protect against PE.
- Retinal and Nonocular Abnormalities in Cyp27a1(-/-)Cyp46a1(-/-) Mice with Dysfunctional Metabolism of Cholesterol. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Jul 24.
Cholesterol elimination from nonhepatic cells involves metabolism to side-chain oxysterols, which serve as transport forms of cholesterol and bioactive molecules modulating a variety of cellular processes. Cholesterol metabolism is tissue specific, and its significance has not yet been established for the retina, where cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP27A1 and CYP46A1) are the major cholesterol-metabolizing enzymes. We generated Cyp27a1(-/-)Cyp46a1(-/-) mice, which were lean and had normal serum cholesterol and glucose levels. These animals, however, had changes in the retinal vasculature, retina, and several nonocular organs (lungs, liver, and spleen). Changes in the retinal vasculature included structural abnormalities (retinal-choroidal anastomoses, arteriovenous shunts, increased permeability, dilation, nonperfusion, and capillary degeneration) and cholesterol deposition and oxidation in the vascular wall, which also exhibited increased adhesion of leukocytes and activation of the complement pathway. Changes in the retina included increased content of cholesterol and its metabolite, cholestanol, which were focally deposited at the apical and basal sides of the retinal pigment epithelium. Retinal macrophages of Cyp27a1(-/-)Cyp46a1(-/-) mice were activated, and oxidative stress was noted in their photoreceptor inner segments. Our findings demonstrate the importance of retinal cholesterol metabolism for maintenance of the normal retina, and suggest new targets for diseases affecting the retinal vasculature.
- Tumor Necrosis Factor-α- and Interleukin-1β-Dependent Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 Expression in Nucleus Pulposus Cells Requires Cooperative Signaling via Syndecan 4 and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Nuclear Factor κB Axis: Implications in Inflammatory Disc Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Jul 22.
Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) plays an important role in intervertebral disc degeneration, a ubiquitous condition closely linked to low back pain and disability. Elevated expression of syndecan 4, a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan, actively controls disc matrix catabolism. However, the relationship between MMP-3 expression and syndecan 4 in the context of inflammatory disc disease has not been clearly defined. We investigated the mechanisms by which cytokines control MMP-3 expression in rat and human nucleus pulposus cells. Cytokine treatment increased MMP-3 expression and promoter activity. Stable silencing of syndecan 4 blocked cytokine-mediated MMP-3 expression; more important, syndecan 4 did not mediate its effects through NF-κB or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. However, treatment with MAPK and NF-κB inhibitors resulted in partial blocking of the inductive effect of cytokines on MMP-3 expression. Loss-of-function studies confirmed that NF-κB, p38α/β2/γ/δ, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 2, but not ERK1, contributed to cytokine-dependent induction of MMP3 promoter activity. Similarly, inhibitor treatments, lentiviral short hairpin-p65, and short hairpin-I κ B kinase β significantly decreased cytokine-dependent up-regulation in MMP-3 expression. Finally, we show that transforming growth factor-β can block the up-regulation of MMP-3 induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α by counteracting the NF-κB pathway and syndecan 4 expression. Taken together, our results suggest that cooperative signaling through syndecan 4 and the TNF receptor 1-MAPK-NF-κB axis is required for TNF-α-dependent expression of MMP-3 in nucleus pulposus cells. Controlling these pathways may slow the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration and matrix catabolism.
- Health Services Research: Opportunities for Pathology. [EDITORIAL]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Jul 21.
This Guest Editorial advocates for expanded health services research in the field of pathology.
- Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 and Cyclooxygenase 2 Pathways Cooperatively Exacerbate Endometrial Cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Jul 21.
The underlying causes of endometrial cancer (EMC) are poorly understood, and treatment options for patients with advanced stages of the disease are limited. Mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homologue gene are frequently detected in EMC. Cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) are known downstream targets of the phosphatase and tensin homologue protein, and their activities are up-regulated in EMC. However, it is not clear whether Cox2 and mTORC1 are crucial players in cancer progression or whether they work in parallel or cooperatively. In this study, we used a Cox2 inhibitor, celecoxib, and an mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin, in mouse models of EMC and in human EMC cell lines to explore the interactive roles of Cox2 and mTORC1 signaling. We found that a combined treatment with celecoxib and rapamycin markedly reduces EMC progression. We also observed that rapamycin reduces Cox2 expression, whereas celecoxib reduces mTORC1 activity. These results suggest that Cox2 and mTORC1 signaling is cross-regulated and cooperatively exacerbate EMC.
- Pivotal Role of Phospholipase D1 in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Mediated Inflammation and Scar Formation after Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion in Mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Jul 18.
Myocardial inflammation is critical for ventricular remodeling after ischemia. Phospholipid mediators play an important role in inflammatory processes. In the plasma membrane they are degraded by phospholipase D1 (PLD1). PLD1 was shown to be critically involved in ischemic cardiovascular events. Moreover, PLD1 is coupled to tumor necrosis factor-α signaling and inflammatory processes. However, the impact of PLD1 in inflammatory cardiovascular disease remains elusive. Here, we analyzed the impact of PLD1 in tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated activation of monocytes after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion using a mouse model of myocardial infarction. PLD1 expression was highly up-regulated in the myocardium after ischemia/reperfusion. Genetic ablation of PLD1 led to defective cell adhesion and migration of inflammatory cells into the infarct border zone 24 hours after ischemia/reperfusion injury, likely owing to reduced tumor necrosis factor-α expression and release, followed by impaired nuclear factor-κB activation and interleukin-1 release. Moreover, PLD1 was found to be important for transforming growth factor-β secretion and smooth muscle α-actin expression of cardiac fibroblasts because myofibroblast differentiation and interstitial collagen deposition were altered in Pld1(-/-) mice. Consequently, infarct size was increased and left ventricular function was impaired 28 days after myocardial infarction in Pld1(-/-) mice. Our results indicate that PLD1 is crucial for tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated inflammation and transforming growth factor-β-mediated collagen scar formation, thereby augmenting cardiac left ventricular function after ischemia/reperfusion.
- Mast Cells Protect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Induced Lung Injury. [Journal Article]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Aug; 184(8):2310-21.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immune-compromised individuals. Maintaining the integrity of the respiratory epithelium is critical for an effective host response to P. aeruginosa. Given the close spatial relationship between mast cells and the respiratory epithelium, and the importance of tightly regulated epithelial permeability during lung infections, we examined whether mast cells influence airway epithelial integrity during P. aeruginosa lung infection in a mouse model. We found that mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh)/Kit(W-sh) mice displayed greatly increased epithelial permeability, bacterial dissemination, and neutrophil accumulation compared with wild-type animals after P. aeruginosa infection; these defects were corrected on reconstitution with mast cells. An in vitro Transwell co-culture model further demonstrated that a secreted mast cell factor decreased epithelial cell apoptosis and tumor necrosis factor production after P. aeruginosa infection. Together, our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for mast cells in the maintenance of epithelial integrity during P. aeruginosa infection, through a mechanism that likely involves prevention of epithelial apoptosis and tumor necrosis factor production. Our understanding of mechanisms of the host response to P. aeruginosa will open new avenues for the development of successful preventative and treatment strategies.
- Angiopoietins promote ovarian cancer progression by establishing a procancer microenvironment. [Journal Article]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Aug; 184(8):2285-96.
Despite decades of research, the survival rate of ovarian cancer patients is largely unchanged. Current chemotherapeutic drugs are effective only transiently because patients with advanced disease eventually develop resistance. Thus, there is a pressing need for identifying novel therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer. Mounting evidence suggests that angiopoietins (Angpts) may play an essential role in cancer progression; however, the expression profiles and biological effects of Angpts on ovarian cancer remain largely unknown. Here, we show that, compared with their normal counterparts, expressions of Angpt1, Angpt2, and Angpt4 are increased in ovarian cancer cells and tissues and that human ovarian cancer cells also express the Angpt receptor Tie-2-receptor tyrosine kinase. We show that increased expression of Angpt1, Angpt2, or Angpt4 promotes intraperitoneal growth of ovarian cancers and shortens survival of the experimental mice. We further show, for the first time, that Angpts promote accumulation of cancer-associated fibroblasts and tumor angiogenesis in the ovarian cancer microenvironment, as well as enhance ovarian cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vivo. In addition, we establish a novel function of Angpts in promoting proliferation and invasion and inducing Tie-2 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in ovarian cancer-associated fibroblasts. Taken together, these data suggest that the Angpt-Tie-2 functional axis is an important player in ovarian cancer progression and an attractive target for ovarian cancer therapy.
- Fcγ Receptors III and IV Mediate Tissue Destruction in a Novel Adult Mouse Model of Bullous Pemphigoid. [Journal Article]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Aug; 184(8):2185-96.
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita are subepidermal autoimmune blistering diseases mediated by autoantibodies against type XVII collagen (Col17) and Col7, respectively. For blister formation, Fc-mediated events, such as infiltration of inflammatory cells in the skin, complement activation, and release of proteases at the dermal-epidermal junction, are essential. Although in the neonatal passive transfer mouse model of BP, tissue destruction is mediated by Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) I and III, the passive transfer model of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita completely depends on FcγRIV. To clarify this discrepancy, we developed a novel experimental model for BP using adult mice. Lesion formation was Fc mediated because γ-chain-deficient mice and mice treated with anti-Col17 IgG, depleted from its sugar moiety at the Fc portion, were resistant to disease induction. By the use of various FcγR-deficient mouse strains, tissue destruction was shown to be mediated by FcγRIV, FcγRIII, and FcγRIIB, whereas FcγRI was not essential. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory mediators in already clinically diseased mice can be explored in the novel BP model, because the pharmacological inhibition of FcγRIV and depletion of granulocytes abolished skin blisters. Herein, we extended our knowledge about the importance of FcγRs in experimental BP and established a novel BP mouse model suitable to study disease development over a longer time period and explore novel treatment strategies in a quasi-therapeutic setting.