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Am J Pathol [journal]
- WFDC1 Is a Key Modulator of Inflammatory and Wound Repair Responses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Sep 11.
WFDC1/ps20 is a whey acidic protein four-disulfide core member that exhibits diverse growth and immune-associated functions in vitro. In vivo functions are unknown, although WFDC1 is lower in reactive stroma. A Wfdc1-null mouse was generated to assess core functions. Wfdc1-null mice exhibited normal developmental and adult phenotypes. However, homeostasis challenges affected inflammatory and repair processes. Wfdc1-null mice infected with influenza A exhibited 2.75-log-fold lower viral titer relative to control mice. Wfdc1-null infected lungs exhibited elevated macrophages and deposition of osteopontin, a potent macrophage chemokine. In wounding studies, Wfdc1-null mice exhibited an elevated rate of skin closure, and this too was associated with elevated deposition of osteopontin and macrophage recruitment. Wfdc1-null fibroblasts exhibited impaired spheroid formation, elevated adhesion to fibronectin, and an increased rate of wound closure in vitro. This was reversed by neutralizing antibody to osteopontin. Osteopontin mRNA and cleaved protein was up-regulated in Wfdc1-null cells treated with lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid coordinate with constitutively active matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), a protease that cleaves osteopontin. These data suggest that WFDC1/ps20 modulates core host response mechanisms, in part, via regulation of osteopontin and MMP-9 activity. Release from WFDC1 regulation is likely a key component of inflammatory and repair response mechanisms, and involves the processing of elevated osteopontin by activated MMP-9, and subsequent macrophage recruitment.
- The ErbB4 Ligand Neuregulin-4 Protects against Experimental Necrotizing Enterocolitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Sep 1.
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) affects up to 10% of premature infants, has a mortality of 30%, and can leave surviving patients with significant morbidity. Neuregulin-4 (NRG4) is an ErbB4-specific ligand that promotes epithelial cell survival. Thus, this pathway could be protective in diseases such as NEC, in which epithelial cell death is a major pathologic feature. We sought to determine whether NRG4-ErbB4 signaling is protective in experimental NEC. NRG4 was used i) in the newborn rat formula feeding/hypoxia model; ii) in a recently developed model in which 14- to 16-day-old mice are injected with dithizone to induce Paneth cell loss, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae infection to induce intestinal injury; and iii) in bacterially infected IEC-6 cells in vitro. NRG4 reduced NEC incidence and severity in the formula feed/hypoxia rat model. It also reduced Paneth cell ablation-induced NEC and prevented dithizone-induced Paneth cell loss in mice. In vitro, cultured ErbB4(-/-) ileal epithelial enteroids had reduced Paneth cell markers and were highly sensitive to inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, NRG4 blocked, through a Src-dependent pathway, Cronobacter muytjensii-induced IEC-6 cell apoptosis. The potential clinical relevance of these findings was demonstrated by the observation that NRG4 and its receptor ErbB4 are present in human breast milk and developing human intestine, respectively. Thus, NRG4-ErbB4 signaling may be a novel pathway for therapeutic intervention or prevention in NEC.
- The Microbiota Protects against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Intestinal Injury through Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain-Containing Protein 2 Signaling. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Sep 6.
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), an intracellular pattern recognition receptor, induces autophagy on detection of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), a component of microbial cell walls. The role of bacteria and NOD2 signaling toward ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced intestinal injury response is unknown. Herein, we report that I/R-induced intestinal injury in germ-free (GF) C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice is worse than in conventionally derived mice (scores: 10.7 ± 1.5 versus 4.1 ± 1.6; P < 0.05). More important, microbiota-mediated protection against I/R-induced intestinal injury is abrogated in conventionally derived Nod2(-/-) mice and GF Nod2(-/-) mice. Also, WT mice raised in specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions fared better against I/R-induced injury than SPF Nod2(-/-) mice (scores: 4.5 ± 0.3 versus 8.6 ± 1.4; P < 0.05). Moreover, SPF WT mice i.p. administered 10 mg/kg MDP were protected against I/R-induced injury compared with mice administered the inactive enantiomer, l-MDP (scores: 6.6 ± 0.9 versus 3.3 ± 0.8; P < 0.05), an effect lost in Nod2(-/-) mice. However, MDP administration failed to protect GF mice from I/R-induced intestinal injury compared with control (scores: 7.2 ± 1.2 versus 8.3 ± 1.5), a phenomenon correlating with undetectable Nod2 mRNA level in the epithelium of GF mice. More important, the autophagy-inducer rapamycin protected Nod2(-/-) mice against I/R-induced injury (scores: 5.8 ± 1.2 versus 9.0 ± 1.2; P < 0.05) and increased the levels of LC3(+) puncta in injured tissue of Nod2(-/-) mice. These findings demonstrate that NOD2 protects against I/R and promotes wound healing, likely through the induction of the autophagy response.
- The Membrane Attack Complex in Aging Human Choriocapillaris: Relationship to Macular Degeneration and Choroidal Thinning. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Sep 6.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common disease that can result in severe visual impairment. Abnormal regulation of the complement system has been implicated in its pathogenesis, and CFH polymorphisms contribute substantially to risk. How these polymorphisms exert their effects is poorly understood. We performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis on young, aged, and AMD choroids to determine the abundance of the membrane attack complex (MAC) and performed immunofluorescence studies on eyes from 117 donors to evaluate the MAC in aging, early AMD, and advanced AMD. Morphometric studies were performed on eyes with high- or low-risk CFH genotypes. ELISA confirmed that MAC increases significantly with aging and with AMD. MAC was localized to Bruch's membrane and the choriocapillaris and was detectable at low levels as early as 5 years of age. Hard drusen were labeled with anti-MAC antibody, but large or confluent drusen and basal deposits were generally unlabeled. Labeling of retinal pigment epithelium was observed in some cases of advanced AMD, but not in early disease. Eyes homozygous for the high-risk CFH genotype had thinner choroids than low-risk homozygotes (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that increased complement activation in AMD and in high-risk genotypes can lead to loss of endothelial cells in early AMD. Treatments to protect the choriocapillaris in early AMD are needed.
- HACE1, a Potential Tumor Suppressor Gene on 6q21, Is Not Involved in Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma Pathophysiology. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Sep 5.
Extranodal natural killer-T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) of nasal type is a malignant disorder of cytotoxic lymphocytes of natural killer or more rarely T cells, associated with clonal Epstein-Barr virus infection. NKTCL is an aggressive neoplasm with very poor prognosis. Although the pathogenesis of NKTCL is little understood, some insight has been gained in the recent years, especially from genome-wide studies, which revealed a deletion on chromosome 6q21 in more than 50% of patients. Of interest, this deleted region contains four candidate tumor suppressor genes whose decreased expression has been confirmed at the mRNA level: PRDM1, ATG5, AIM1, and HACE1. Mutations and methylation in PRDM1, ATG5, and AIM1 have been reported in NKTCL cell lines. We investigated the involvement of HACE1 in NKTCL pathophysiology. Even though the hypermethylation of CpG-177 island located directly upstream of HACE1 locus led to down-regulation of HACE1 mRNA, the protein product was expressed at nearly normal levels and was functional in the NKTCL cell lines regardless of 6q21 deletion (and indeed no double deletion of 6q21 and no nonfunctional mutations have been reported). Furthermore, contrary to previous report, overexpression of HACE1 by transduction of recombinant protein did not affect proliferation or survival of NKTCL cell lines. We therefore conclude that HACE1 is not directly involved in NKTCL pathophysiology.
- Activation of the Endothelin System Mediates Pathological Angiogenesis during Ischemic Retinopathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Sep 5.
Retinopathy of prematurity adversely affects premature infants because of oxygen-induced damage of the immature retinal vasculature, resulting in pathological neovascularization (NV). Our pilot studies using the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) indicated that several angiogenic mediators, including vasoactive endothelins and endothelin receptor (EDNR) A, are highly increased. We hypothesized that endothelin system activation plays a causal role in pathological angiogenesis and up-regulation of angiogenic mediators in OIR, via a mechanism involving activation of EDNRA. Mice were exposed to 75% oxygen from post-natal day P7 to P12, treated with either vehicle or EDNRA antagonist BQ-123 or EDNRB antagonist BQ-788 on P12, and kept at room air from P12 to P17 (ischemic phase). RT-PCR analysis revealed increased levels of EDN2 and EDNRA mRNA expression, and Western blot analysis revealed increased EDN2 expression during the ischemia phase. EDNRA inhibition significantly increased vessel sprouting, resulting in enhanced physiological angiogenesis and decreased pathological NV, whereas EDNRB inhibition modestly improved vascular repair. OIR triggered significant increases in vascular endothelial growth factor A protein and mRNA for delta-like ligand 4, apelin, angiopoietin-2, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. BQ-123 treatment significantly reduced these alterations. EDN2 expression was localized to retinal glia and areas of pathological NV in the OIR retinas. EDN2 also induced vascular endothelial growth factor A protein expression in cultured astrocytes. In conclusion, inhibition of the EDNRA during OIR suppressed pathological NV and promoted physiological angiogenesis.
- Protein Phosphatase Magnesium Dependent 1A Governs the Wound Healing-Inflammation-Angiogenesis Cross Talk on Injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Sep 4.
Protein phosphatase magnesium dependent 1A (PPM1A) has been implicated in fibrosis and skin wounding. We generated PPM1A knockout mice to study the role of PPM1A in the wound healing-inflammation-angiogenesis cross talk. The role of PPM1A in these processes was studied using the ocular alkali burn model system. In the injured cornea the absence of PPM1A led to enhanced inflammatory response, stromal keratocyte transactivation, fibrosis, increased p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, elevated expression of transforming growth factor-β-related genes (including Acta2, Tgfb, Col1, Mmp9, and Vegf) and subsequently to neovascularization. Augmented angiogenesis in the absence of PPM1A is a general process occurring in vivo in PPM1A knockout mice on subcutaneous Matrigel injection and ex vivo in aortic ring Matrigel cultures. Using primary keratocyte cultures and various experimental approaches, we found that phospho-p38 is a favored PPM1A substrate and that by its dephosphorylation PPM1A participates in the regulation of the transforming growth factor-β signaling cascade, the hallmark of inflammation and the angiogenic process. On the whole, the studies presented here position PPM1A as a new player in the wound healing-inflammation-angiogenesis axis in mouse, reveal its crucial role in homeostasis on injury, and highlight its potential as a therapeutic mediator in pathologic conditions, such as inflammation and angiogenesis disorders, including cancer.
- Serum Profiling Identifies Novel Muscle miRNA and Cardiomyopathy-Related miRNA Biomarkers in Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy Dogs and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Sep 3.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal, X-linked neuromuscular disease that affects 1 boy in 3500 to 5000 boys. The golden retriever muscular dystrophy dog is the best clinically relevant DMD animal model. Here, we used a high-thoughput miRNA sequencing screening for identification of candidate serum miRNA biomarkers in golden retriever muscular dystrophy dogs. We confirmed the dysregulation of the previously described muscle miRNAs, miR-1, miR-133, miR-206, and miR-378, and identified a new candidate muscle miRNA, miR-95. We identified two other classes of dysregulated serum miRNAs in muscular dystrophy: miRNAs belonging to the largest known miRNA cluster that resides in the imprinting DLK1-DIO3 genomic region and miRNAs associated with cardiac disease, including miR-208a, miR-208b, and miR-499. No simple correlation was identified between serum levels of cardiac miRNAs and cardiac functional parameters in golden retriever muscular dystrophy dogs. Finally, we confirmed a dysregulation of miR-95, miR-208a, miR-208b, miR-499, and miR-539 in a small cohort of DMD patients. Given the interspecies conservation of miRNAs and preliminary data in DMD patients, these newly identified dysregulated miRNAs are strong candidate biomarkers for DMD patients.
- Gremlin Promotes Peritoneal Membrane Injury in an Experimental Mouse Model and Is Associated with Increased Solute Transport in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Sep 3.
The peritoneal membrane becomes damaged in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Gremlin 1 (GREM1) inhibits bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and plays a role in development and fibrosis. We evaluated the role of gremlin in peritoneal fibrosis and angiogenesis. In a cohort of 32 stable PD patients, GREM1 concentration in the peritoneal effluent correlated with measures of peritoneal membrane damage. AdGrem1, an adenovirus to overexpress gremlin in the mouse peritoneum, induced submesothelial thickening, fibrosis, and angiogenesis in C57BL/6 mice, which was associated with decreased expression of BMP4 and BMP7. There was evidence of mesothelial cell transition to a mesenchymal phenotype with increased α smooth muscle actin expression and suppression of E-cadherin. Some of the GREM1 effects may be reversed with recombinant BMP7 or a pan-specific transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) antibody. Neovascularization was not inhibited with a TGF-β antibody, suggesting a TGF-β-independent angiogenic mechanism. Swiss/Jackson Laboratory (SJL) mice, which are resistant to TGF-β-induced peritoneal fibrosis, responded in a similar fashion to AdGrem1 as did C57BL/6 mice with fibrosis, angiogenesis, and mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. GREM1 was associated with up-regulated TGF-β expression in both SJL and C57BL/6 mice, but SJL mice demonstrated a defective TGF-β-induced GREM1 expression. In summary, GREM1 induces fibrosis and angiogenesis in mouse peritoneum and is associated with increased solute transport in these PD patients.
- B2 Cells Suppress Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2014 Sep 3.
Recent reports of rupture in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) receiving B-cell depletion therapy highlight the importance of understanding the role of B cells (B1 and B2 subsets) in the development of AAA. We hypothesized that B2 cells aggravate experimental aneurysm formation. The IHC staining revealed infiltration of B cells in the aorta of wild-type (C57BL/6) mice at day 7 after elastase perfusion and persisted through day 21. Quantification of immune cell types using flow cytometry at day 14 showed significantly greater infiltration of mononuclear cells, including B cells (B2: 93% of total B cells) and T cells in elastase-perfused aortas compared with saline-perfused or normal aortas. muMT (mature B-cell deficient) mice were prone to AAA formation similar to wild-type mice in two different experimental AAA models. Contradicting our hypothesis, adoptive transfer of B2 cells suppressed AAA formation (102.0% ± 7.3% versus 75.2% ± 5.5%; P < 0.05) with concomitant increase in the splenic regulatory T cell (0.24% ± 0.03% versus 0.92% ± 0.23%; P < 0.05) and decrease in aortic infiltration of mononuclear cells. Our data suggest that B2 cells constitute the largest population of B cells in experimental AAA. Furthermore, B2 cells, in the absence of other B-cell subsets, increase splenic regulatory T-cell population and suppress AAA formation.