Am J Pathol [journal]
- BRAF Mutations Open Doors for N-Ethyl-N-Nitrosourea-Induced Gliomagenesis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2016 Aug 17.
This commentary highlights the article by Wang et al that describes a preclinical model for targeting BRAF-mutant gliomas.
- SAG/Rbx2-Dependent Neddylation Regulates T-Cell Responses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2016 Aug 17.
Neddylation is a crucial post-translational modification that depends on the E3 cullin ring ligase (CRL). The E2-adapter component of the CRL, sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG), is critical for the function of CRL-mediated ubiquitination; thus, the deletion of SAG regulates neddylation. We examined the role of SAG-dependent neddylation in T-cell-mediated immunity using multiple approaches: a novel T-cell-specific, SAG genetic knockout (KO) and chemical inhibition with small-molecule MLN4924. The KO animals were viable and showed phenotypically normal mature T-cell development. However, in vitro stimulation of KO T cells revealed significantly decreased activation, proliferation, and T-effector cytokine release, compared with WT. Using in vivo clinically relevant models of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation also demonstrated reduced proliferation and effector cytokine secretion associated with markedly reduced graft-versus-host disease. Similar in vitro and in vivo results were observed with the small-molecule inhibitor of neddylation, MLN4924. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that SAG-mediated effects in T cells were concomitant with an increase in suppressor of cytokine signaling, but not NF-κB translocation. Our studies suggest that SAG is a novel molecular target that regulates T-cell responses and that inhibiting neddylation with the clinically available small-molecule MLN4924 may represent a novel strategy to mitigate T-cell-mediated immunopathologies, such as graft-versus-host disease.
- Molecular Mechanism Underlying Pathogenesis of Lewisite-Induced Cutaneous Blistering and Inflammation: Chemical Chaperones as Potential Novel Antidotes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2016 Aug 12.
Lewisite is a potent arsenic-based chemical warfare agent known to induce painful cutaneous inflammation and blistering. Only a few modestly effective antidotes have so far been described in the literature. However, the discovery of effective antidotes for lewisite was hampered by the paucity of the exact molecular mechanism underlying its cutaneous pathogenesis. We investigated the molecular mechanism underlying lewisite-induced cutaneous blistering and inflammation and describe its novel antidotes. On the basis of our initial screening, we used a highly sensitive murine model that recapitulates the known human pathogenesis of arsenicals-induced cutaneous inflammation and blistering. Topically administered lewisite induced potent acute inflammation and microvesication in the skin of Ptch1(+/-)/SKH-1 mice. Even at a very low dose, lewisite up-regulates unfolded protein response signaling, inflammatory response, and apoptosis. These cutaneous lesions were associated with production of reactive oxygen species and extensive apoptosis of the epidermal keratinocytes. We confirmed that activation of reactive oxygen species-dependent unfolded protein response signaling is the underlying molecular mechanism of skin damage. Similar alterations were noticed in lewisite-treated cultured human skin keratinocytes. We discovered that chemical chaperone 4-phenyl butyric acid and antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, which significantly attenuate lewisite-mediated skin injury, can serve as potent antidotes. These data reveal a novel molecular mechanism underlying the cutaneous pathogenesis of lewisite-induced lesions. We also identified novel potential therapeutic targets for lewisite-mediated cutaneous injury.
- Distorted Patterns of Dentinogenesis and Eruption in Msx2 Null Mutants: Involvement of Sost/Sclerostin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2016 Aug 11.
The muscle segment homeogenes Msx1 and Msx2 play a major role in tooth and bone formation. Periodontal osteoclast impairment also occurs in Msx2 null mutant mice, which is restored by overexpression of the receptor activator of NF-κB targeted in osteoclast lineage. Here, we investigated the role of Msx2 in dentinogenesis. Experiments were performed on Msx2(-/-) mice and the MDPC-23 odontoblastic cell line. After Msx2 gene silencing, real-time quantitative RT-PCR data showed significant overexpression of Runx2, Bglap, Dspp, and Alpl. Of three inhibitors of Wnt/β-catenin signaling (Dkk1, SostDc1, and Sost/Sclerostin), only Sost was expressed in postnatal teeth and overexpressed in Msx2(-/-) tooth samples. Initial crown dentin formation-primary dentinogenesis-occurred fairly normally in Msx2(-/-) teeth, albeit with distorted cusp patterns. Later stages of tooth development were characterized by a deviation from secondary toward tertiary dentinogenesis with osteodentin formation and impaired dentin deposition leading to limited root elongation. In Msx2(-/-)/receptor activator of NF-κB-transgenic double mutants, the dentin phenotype, notably in the roots, was rescued and sclerostin levels were normalized. These data suggest that Msx2 may act indirectly on dentinogenesis by controlling osteoclast activity and the signaling network related to eruption, supporting and further extending the concept that Msx2 controls formation of mineralized tissues by inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway; Sost in dentin and Dkk1 in bone, as previously demonstrated.
- Pharmacologic Activation of Wnt Signaling by Lithium Normalizes Retinal Vasculature in a Murine Model of Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2016 Aug 11.
Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is characterized by delayed retinal vascular development, which promotes hypoxia-induced pathologic vessels. In severe cases FEVR may lead to retinal detachment and visual impairment. Genetic studies linked FEVR with mutations in Wnt signaling ligand or receptors, including low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene. Here, we investigated ocular pathologies in a Lrp5 knockout (Lrp5(-/-)) mouse model of FEVR and explored whether treatment with a pharmacologic Wnt activator lithium could bypass the genetic defects, thereby protecting against eye pathologies. Lrp5(-/-) mice displayed significantly delayed retinal vascular development, absence of deep layer retinal vessels, leading to increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and subsequent pathologic glomeruloid vessels, as well as decreased inner retinal visual function. Lithium treatment in Lrp5(-/-) mice significantly restored the delayed development of retinal vasculature and the intralaminar capillary networks, suppressed formation of pathologic glomeruloid structures, and promoted hyaloid vessel regression. Moreover, lithium treatment partially rescued inner-retinal visual function and increased retinal thickness. These protective effects of lithium were largely mediated through restoration of canonical Wnt signaling in Lrp5(-/-) retina. Lithium treatment also substantially increased vascular tubular formation in LRP5-deficient endothelial cells. These findings suggest that pharmacologic activation of Wnt signaling may help treat ocular pathologies in FEVR and potentially other defective Wnt signaling-related diseases.
- Stem Cells in Lung Injury and Repair. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2016 Aug 11.
In this review, we summarize the recent literature on the biology of endogenous stem cells in adult lung injury repair. We focus on in vivo studies in mice with an emphasis on data generated using cell-specific Cre-dependent lineage-tracing systems. These studies provide new information on the identification of lung stem cells, their hierarchical relationships, the plasticity of their behavior in different types of injury, and the molecular signals that control their fates. Although most of this work has been on epithelial hierarchies, we expect that further development of robust genetic tools will foster meaningful investigations into how nonepithelial cell populations are controlled during lung injury repair in adults. The ultimate challenge will be to translate these findings to the pathogenesis and treatment of human lung diseases.
- Knockdown of CSE1L Gene in Colorectal Cancer Reduces Tumorigenesis in Vitro. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2016 Aug 10.
Human cellular apoptosis susceptibility (chromosomal segregation 1-like, CSE1L) gene plays a role in nuclear-to-cytoplasm transport and chromosome segregation during mitosis, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. CSE1L is involved in colon carcinogenesis. CSE1L gene expression was assessed with three data sets using Affymetrix U133 + gene chips on normal human colonic mucosa (NR), adenomas (ADs), and colorectal carcinoma (CRC). CSE1L protein expression in CRC, AD, and NR from the same patients was measured by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray. We evaluated CSE1L expression in CRC cells (HCT116, SW480, and HT29) and its biological functions. CSE1L mRNA was significantly increased in all AD and CRC compared with NR (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectivly). We observed a change in CSE1L staining intensity and cellular localization by immunohistochemistry. CSE1L was significantly increased during the transition from AD to CRC when compared with NR in a CRC tissue microarray (P = 0.01 and P < 0.001). HCT116, SW480, and HT29 cells also expressed CSE1L protein. CSE1L knockdown by shRNA inhibited protein, resulting in decreased cell proliferation, reduced colony formation in soft agar, and induction of apoptosis. CSE1L protein is expressed early and across all stages of CRC development. shRNA knockdown of CSE1L was associated with inhibition of tumorigenesis in CRC cells. CSE1L may represent a potential target for treatment of CRC.
- Temporal Resolution of Misfolded Prion Protein Transport, Accumulation, Glial Activation, and Neuronal Death in the Retinas of Mice Inoculated with Scrapie. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2016 Aug 5.
Currently, there is a lack of pathological landmarks to describe the progression of prion disease in vivo. Our goal was to use an experimental model to determine the temporal relationship between the transport of misfolded prion protein (PrP(Sc)) from the brain to the retina, the accumulation of PrP(Sc) in the retina, the response of the surrounding retinal tissue, and loss of neurons. Retinal samples from mice inoculated with RML scrapie were collected at 30, 60, 90, 105, and 120 days post inoculation (dpi) or at the onset of clinical signs of disease (153 dpi). Retinal homogenates were tested for prion seeding activity. Antibody staining was used to assess accumulation of PrP(Sc) and the resulting response of retinal tissue. Loss of photoreceptors was used as a measure of neuronal death. PrP(Sc) seeding activity was first detected in all samples at 60 dpi. Accumulation of PrP(Sc) and coincident activation of retinal glia were first detected at 90 dpi. Activation of microglia was first detected at 105 dpi, but neuronal death was not detectable until 120 dpi. Our results demonstrate that by using the retina we can resolve the temporal separation between several key events in the pathogenesis of prion disease.
- Macrophage A2A Adenosine Receptors Are Essential to Protect from Progressive Kidney Injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2016 Aug 9.
A2A adenosine receptors (A2ARs) are endogenous inhibitor of inflammation. Macrophages that are key effectors of kidney disease progression express A2ARs. We investigated the role of A2ARs in kidney inflammation in a macrophage-mediated anti-glomerular basement membrane reactive serum-induced immune nephritis in A2AR-deficient mice. Sub-threshold doses of glomerular basement membrane-reactive serum induced more severe and prolonged kidney damage with higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and greater accumulation of inflammatory cells in A2AR(-/-) mice than wild-type (WT) mice. To investigate the role of macrophage A2AR in progressive kidney injury, glomerulonephritis was induced in CD11b-DTR transgenic mice. Macrophages were selectively depleted in the established phase of the disease and reconstituted with macrophages from WT or A2AR-deficient mice and then treated with an A2AR agonist. In mice receiving WT macrophages and treated with an A2AR agonist, the glomerular cellularity, crescent formation, sclerotic glomeruli, and tubulointerstitial injury were significantly reduced compared with the control group. In contrast, in mice reconstituted with A2AR-deficient macrophages and treated with an A2AR agonist, the kidney injury was more severe with increased deposition of collagen I, III, and IV. These findings suggest that disruption of the protective A2AR amplifies inflammation to accelerate glomerular damage and endogenous macrophage A2ARs are essential to protect from progressive kidney fibrosis.
- Activation of Liver X Receptor Attenuates Oleic Acid-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2016 Aug 9.
Liver X receptors (LXRs) were identified as receptors that sense oxidized cholesterol derivatives. LXRs are best known for their hepatic functions in regulating cholesterol metabolism and triglyceride synthesis, but whether and how LXRs play a role in the lung diseases is less understood. To study the function of LXRs in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), we applied the oleic acid (OA) model of ARDS to mice whose LXR was genetically or pharmacologically activated. The VP-LXRα knock-in (LXR-KI) mice, in which a constitutively activated LXRα (VP-LXRα) was inserted into the mouse LXRα locus, were used as the genetic gain-of-function model. We showed that the OA-induced lung damages, including the cytokine levels and total cell numbers and neutrophil numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the wet/dry weight ratio, and morphological abnormalities were reduced in the LXR-KI mice and wild-type mice treated with the LXR agonist GW3965. The pulmonoprotective effect of GW3965 was abolished in the LXR-null mice. Consistent with the pulmonoprotective effect of LXR and the induction of antioxidant enzymes by LXR, the OA-induced suppression of superoxide dismutase and catalase was attenuated in LXR-KI mice and GW3965-treated wild-type mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that activation of LXRs can alleviate OA-induced ARDS by attenuating the inflammatory response and enhancing antioxidant capacity.