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American Journal of Ophthalmology [journal]
- Reply. [Letter]
- Am J Ophthalmol 2013 Jun; 155(6):1148-9.
- Visual field staging systems in glaucoma and the activities of daily living. [Letter]
- Am J Ophthalmol 2013 Jun; 155(6):1148.
- Photodynamic Therapy Versus Combination Therapy in Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy: Changes of Aqueous Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Ophthalmol 2013 May 9.
PURPOSE:To investigate the influence of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and combination of PDT and ranibizumab on aqueous humor levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).
DESIGN:Prospective randomized clinical trial.
METHOD:We included 20 eyes with treatment-naïve PCV and 20 eyes undergoing cataract surgery as controls. PCV eyes were randomized to treatment with PDT alone or to a combination of ranibizumab and PDT on the same day. During 3 months, retreatment was not performed. Aqueous humors were collected at baseline and at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after treatment in the PCV group and during cataract surgery in the control group. VEGF levels were measured using multiplex bead immunoassay.
RESULTS:At baseline, VEGF levels were significantly increased in PCV eyes compared with control eyes. A significant decrease in VEGF levels was found at 1 week after PDT treatment (n = 8) and at all time points after combination treatment (n = 12). With combination treatment, VEGF levels were decreased to values below the detection limit in all eyes at 1 week and 1 month and in 7 of 12 eyes at 3 months. There was no difference in the clinical profiles among the 2 treatment groups at each time point.
CONCLUSION:Decreased levels of VEGF detected 1 week after PDT for PCV seems to reflect acute damage of vascular endothelial cells, one of the VEGF expression sites in PCV. Concomitant ranibizumab resulted in a further decrease in VEGF to negligible levels, but this result did not affect the clinical results for 3 months.
- Short-Term Outcomes of Aflibercept for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Eyes Previously Treated With Other Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibitors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Ophthalmol 2013 May 8.
PURPOSE:To report results of aflibercept therapy in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration previously treated with bevacizumab, ranibizumab, or both.
DESIGN:Retrospective, interventional, noncomparative, consecutive case series.
METHODS:Ninety-six eyes from 85 patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration who previously had received bevacizumab, ranibizumab, or both were treated with aflibercept monthly for 3 months followed by a fourth injection within 2 months. Outcomes were determined 4 ± 1 months after the first aflibercept dose and included: proportion of patients gaining or losing 2 lines or more of best-corrected visual acuity, proportion remaining within a gain or loss of 1 line, mean change in logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution visual acuity, mean change in central foveal thickness, mean change in macular cube volume, and qualitative anatomic response as assessed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.
RESULTS:At baseline, 82 (85%) eyes had signs of active exudation despite a mean of 17 previous anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections. At final visit, 82 (85%) remained stable within a gain or loss of 1 line, 7 (7%) gained 2 lines or more, and 7 (7%) lost 2 lines or more of best-corrected visual acuity. Mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution visual acuity showed minimal change 0.02 (range, -0.46 to 0.70; P = .14). Mean central foveal thickness decreased -18 μm (range, -242 to 198 μm; P = .06). Mean macular volume decreased -0.27 mm(3) (95% confidence interval, -0.4 to -0.1 mm(3); P = .004). On qualitative analysis, 4 (5%) eyes had complete resolution of exudative fluid, 40 (49%) showed partial resolution, 26 (32%) remained unchanged, and 12 (14%) showed worsened exudative fluid.
CONCLUSIONS:Aflibercept seems to be an effective alternative for neovascular age-related macular degeneration patients previously treated with bevacizumab, ranibizumab, or both at 4 months of follow-up. Most treated eyes demonstrated stable visual acuity and anatomic improvements by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.
- Accuracy and Speed of Electronic Health Record Versus Paper-Based Ophthalmic Documentation Strategies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Ophthalmol 2013 May 8.
PURPOSE:To compare accuracy and speed of keyboard and mouse electronic health record (EHR) documentation strategies with those of a paper documentation strategy.
DESIGN:Prospective cohort study.
METHODS:Three documentation strategies were developed: (1) keyboard EHR, (2) mouse EHR, and (3) paper. Ophthalmology trainees recruited for the study were presented with 5 clinical cases and documented findings using each strategy. For each case-strategy pair, findings and documentation time were recorded. Accuracy of each strategy was calculated based on sensitivity (fraction of findings in actual case that were documented by subject) and positive ratio (fraction of findings identified by subject that were present in the actual case).
RESULTS:Twenty subjects were enrolled. A total of 258 findings were identified in the 5 cases, resulting in 300 case-strategy pairs and 77 400 possible total findings documented. Sensitivity was 89.1% for the keyboard EHR, 87.2% for mouse EHR, and 88.6% for the paper strategy (no statistically significant differences). The positive ratio was 99.4% for the keyboard EHR, 98.9% for mouse EHR, and 99.9% for the paper strategy (P < .001 for mouse EHR vs paper; no significant differences between other pairs). Mean ± standard deviation documentation speed was significantly slower for the keyboard (2.4 ± 1.1 seconds/finding) and mouse (2.2 ± 0.7 seconds/finding) EHR compared with the paper strategy (2.0 ± 0.8 seconds/finding). Documentation speed of the mouse EHR strategy worsened with repetition.
CONCLUSIONS:No documentation strategy was perfectly accurate in this study. Documentation speed for both EHR strategies was slower than with paper. Further studies involving total physician time requirements for ophthalmic EHRs are required.
- Assessment of Retinal Function Before and After Idiopathic Macular Hole Surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Ophthalmol 2013 May 8.
PURPOSE:To evaluate preoperative and postoperative retinal function in patients who underwent macular surgery for idiopathic macular hole.
DESIGN:Prospective, comparative, interventional case series.
METHODS:Thirty eyes of 30 patients with idiopathic macular hole were included in the study. Patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy and peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM). ILM visualization was improved in 15 patients by using triamcinolone acetonide and in the remaining 15 patients by using infracyanine green dye. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography examination was performed to document macular hole closure. Retinal function was assessed preoperatively and postoperatively over a period of 12 months by best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement (ETDRS chart), MP-1 microperimetry, and focal electroretinogram recording (fERG). Focal electroretinograms were recorded in response to a sinusoidally modulated (41 Hz), uniform field presented to the macular (18 degrees) and foveal (2.25 degrees) region.
RESULTS:Macular hole closure was achieved in all patients in both groups. At 12 months, visual acuity improved in both groups (P < .001), and there were no statistically significant differences between groups. Mean macular sensitivity within the central 2 and 8 degrees increased in both groups, and there were no statistically significant differences between groups at any follow-up. In the triamcinolone acetonide group, 12 months after surgery the amplitude of the fERG's first harmonic (1F) increased both in the macular region (P < .001) and in the foveal region (P < .05). In the infracyanine green group, at 12 months the amplitude of the first harmonic (1F) decreased in both areas. The decrease was significant in the macular region (P < .05) and not significant in the foveal region (P = .095).
CONCLUSION:Vitrectomy and ILM peeling assisted with either triamcinolone acetonide or infracyanine green staining improves visual acuity and mean macular sensitivity at 12 months in patients affected by idiopathic macular hole. However, triamcinolone acetonide staining is associated with an increase of fERG's first harmonic amplitude in the foveal and macular region, whereas in the case of infracyanine green staining it seems to decrease after surgery. The reduction of the amplitude of fERG's first harmonic suggests that infracyanine green may have a late toxic effect on photoreceptor cells.
- Subfoveal Fibrosis in Eyes With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treated With Intravitreal Ranibizumab. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Ophthalmol 2013 May 8.
PURPOSE:To assess baseline and follow-up characteristics of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions in age-related macular degeneration in relation to the development of subfoveal subretinal fibrosis.
DESIGN:Retrospective, observational case series.
METHODS:settings and study population: One hundred ninety-seven treatment-naïve eyes in 197 patients with CNV in age-related macular degeneration without subfoveal fibrosis at first presentation who were treated with ranibizumab in a pro re nata regimen. main outcome measure: Subfoveal fibrosis at the conclusion follow-up of 24 months or fewer.
RESULTS:The hazard ratio of any subfoveal fibrosis developing in eyes with predominantly classic CNV was 5.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.25 to 10.90) compared with minimally classic and occult CNV, whereas the hazard ratio of fibrosis developing with foveal atrophy was 3.38 (95% CI, 1.47 to 7.81; mean follow-up, 1.80 years; 95% CI, 1.75 to 1.85 years). The hazard ratio of any fibrosis developing was 3.38 (95% CI, 1.10 to 10.38) in eyes with a baseline best-corrected visual acuity of 40 or worse using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letter scores, as compared with eyes with a baseline best-corrected visual acuity of 70 letters or more. An interval between diagnosis and treatment of 15 days or more was associated with a hazard ratio of any fibrosis developing of 2.24 (95% CI, 1.28 to 3.94) as compared with an interval of fewer than 15 days. Compared with eyes in which fibrosis did not develop, eyes in which prominent fibrosis or fibrosis developed with foveal atrophy lost 8.5 more Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters (95% CI, -1.0 to -15.9; P = .0242) and 10.3 more Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters (95% CI, -4.0 to -16.5; P = .0012), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:The development of subfoveal fibrosis in neovascular age-related macular degeneration was associated with predominantly classic CNV and poorer visual acuity at first presentation, a longer interval between diagnosis and treatment, and approximately 2 lines of additional visual loss at the conclusion follow-up.
- Correction of Lower Lid Retraction Using TarSys Bioengineered Grafts for Graves Ophthalmopathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Ophthalmol 2013 May 6.
PURPOSE:To investigate the efficacy of decellularized porcine-derived membrane (tarSys; IOP Inc), a bioengineered eyelid spacer graft, for lower lid retraction correction in patients with Graves ophthalmopathy.
DESIGN:Retrospective observational case series study.
METHODS:This was a retrospective review of patients with Graves ophthalmopathy undergoing lower eyelid retraction surgery using decellularized porcine-derived membrane bioengineered eyelid spacer grafts from 2008 through 2011. Outcome measures included lower eyelid height (measured from the corneal light reflex to the lower eyelid margin, or marginal reflex distance-2 [MRD2]), reduction of lagophthalmos, cosmetic appearance, complications, and need for further surgery. Presurgery and postreconstruction photographs were reviewed for functional and cosmetic outcome.
RESULTS:A total of 32 Graves patients and 37 eyelids underwent lower eyelid retraction surgery using decellularized porcine-derived membrane. There were 10 male and 22 female patients with mean age of 41.8 ± 8.6 years. Mean improvement in MRD2 was 1.4 ± 0.4 mm. Mean reduction of lagophthalmos was 1.3 ± 0.4 mm. There are statistically significant differences between preoperative and postoperative MRD2 and lagophthalmos (paired t test, both P < .0001). No evidence of infection and corneal erosion was noted and none of the patients needed further surgeries. Prolonged lower lid swelling and slight puffy appearance were noted for 6 patients. The swelling and puffy appearance resolved completely 3 months after surgery. Conjunctival granuloma formation was found in 1 patient. The cosmetic result was satisfactory in all cases.
CONCLUSIONS:Decellularized porcine-derived membrane, a bioengineered graft, is effective for the management of lower lid retraction in patients with Graves ophthalmopathy. It can offer an alternate graft for eyelid reconstruction.
- Correction of Ocular Shape in Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography and Effect on Current Clinical Measures. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Ophthalmol 2013 May 6.
PURPOSE:To address the misrepresentation of the eye in retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and to examine the effect of this misrepresentation on retinal thickness measurements.
DESIGN:Prospective case series.
METHODS:Five subjects with recent orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and normal eye examinations were consented from the clinics of the Duke Eye Center. Each subject had both eyes imaged using a retinal spectral-domain OCT system and ocular biometry measured. Two types of individualized optical models of the subject eyes-numerical and analytical-were used to determine the spatial paths of the OCT A-scans. These paths were used to reorient the A-scans in the associated retinal OCT images and generate corrected images. Using curvature as a general measure of shape, the radii of curvature of the retinal pigment epithelium in the original and corrected OCT images were compared to the ocular radii of curvature in the MRI images. Differences between the retinal thickness maps derived from the original and corrected OCT images were then determined.
RESULTS:The retinal curvatures were substantially flatter in the original OCT than in the MRI images (mean paired difference: 52.8 ± 41.8 mm, P < .001). Correcting the OCT images decreased the paired differences between OCT and MRI (numerical: 1.6 ± 2.3 mm, P = .091; analytical: 1.9 ± 4.3 mm, P = .278). Retinal thickness measurements between the corrected and uncorrected images differed, with a root mean square difference of 5.61 μm over the entire 6-mm extent of the image; this difference was greater peripherally (6.02 μm) than centrally (2.54 μm).
CONCLUSIONS:Optically based algorithms can be used to correct the shape of the retina as represented in OCT; this correction makes OCT more consistent with other clinical imaging techniques. Resultant retinal thickness maps were minimally affected by the change in shape. Ocular shape correction should be considered in future development of posterior segment OCT-based morphologic measurements.
- Long-term Risk of Glaucoma After Congenital Cataract Surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Ophthalmol 2013 Apr 30.