American journal of clinical dermatology [journal]
- Itch in the General Internal Medicine Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study of Prevalence and Quality-of-Life Effects. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Aug 12.
Itch is a well-established symptom in cutaneous disease. However, little is known about the burden of itch outside the dermatology setting.To determine the prevalence and impact of itch on quality of life (QOL) in the general internal medicine setting.We performed a cross-sectional study of 2076 adults from an outpatient general internal medicine clinic, using an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview. A history of itch (acute or chronic) and other physical symptoms in the past week, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) 10-item Global Health Questionnaire scores, and Patient Health Questionnaire-2 scores were assessed.The prevalence of itch was 39.9 % and increased with age from 33.1 % at age 19-39 years to 45.9 % at age ≥80 years. In multivariable models controlled for socio-demographics, even feeling "a little" or "some" distress from itch was significantly associated with lower PROMIS global physical and mental health T-scores and estimated health utility scores (P ≤ 0.01). Further, feeling "quite a lot" of distress or "very much" distress from itch was associated with higher adjusted odds ratios for depressed mood (4.91 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 3.36-7.18]) and anhedonia (4.46 [95 % CI 3.07-6.47]). The patient burden of itch was similar to those of pain, constipation, sexual dysfunction, cough, and weight loss.Itch occurs commonly in the primary care setting and is associated with poor QOL. Physicians should inquire about itch and its associations during review of systems. Future studies are needed to distinguish between the effects of acute and chronic itch.
- Phototherapy for Pityriasis Lichenoides in the Pediatric Population: A Review of the Published Literature. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Aug 8.
Pityriasis lichenoides (PL) is a dermatologic disorder that manifests in either the acute (pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta) or the chronic form (pityriasis lichenoides chronica, also known as parapsoriasis chronica). Traditional first-line therapy consists of corticosteroids or antibiotics; however, these treatments are often accompanied with multiple side effects and may be ineffective.The goal of this study was to review the use of phototherapy for treating PL in the pediatric population.We performed a systematic review of the literature in the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database and the SCOPUS database discussing phototherapy for treatment of PL in the pediatric population. The following search terms were used: 'pityriasis lichenoides', 'pityriasis lichenoides chronica', 'pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta', and 'febrile ulceronecrotic Mucha-Habermann disease'.The systematic search and screening of articles resulted in 14 articles including a total of 64 patients with PL treated with phototherapy. Three different modalities were utilized, with five studies using broadband ultraviolet B (BB-UVB) radiation, nine studies utilizing narrowband UVB (NB-UVB), and two studies employing psoralen with ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy. Overall, the use of BB-UVB had an initial clearance rate of 89.6 % with 23.1 % recurrence, whereas NB-UVB cleared 73 % of the lesions with no recurrence, and PUVA therapy initially cleared 83 % of the lesions with 60 % recurrence. The side-effect profiles were similar and revealed limited toxicity.Phototherapy shows promising results and a favorable side-effect profile in the treatment of PL. Ultimately, large randomized controlled trials are needed to determine optimal treatments.
- Nationwide Assessment of Cause-Specific Mortality in Patients with Rosacea: A Cohort Study in Denmark. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Aug 1.
Emerging data suggest that rosacea is associated with several comorbidities; however, the causes of mortality in patients with rosacea have not yet been investigated.We evaluated all-cause and cause-specific death rates in patients with rosacea in a population-based Danish cohort study.All Danish individuals aged ≥18 years between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2012 with rosacea diagnosed by hospital dermatologists were linked in nationwide registers and compared with age- and sex-matched general-population subjects (1:5 ratio). Death rates were calculated per 1000 person-years, and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression models.The total cohort (n = 35,958) included 5993 patients with rosacea and 29,965 age- and sex-matched individuals from the general population. During the maximum 15 years of follow-up, 664 (11.1 %) patients with rosacea and 3121 (10.4 %) patients in the reference population died. The risk of all-cause mortality was similar in patients with rosacea and the reference population [HR 1.06, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.98-1.15]. Analyses of cause-specific mortality revealed a significantly increased risk of death due to gastrointestinal diseases in patients with rosacea (HR 1.95, 95 % CI 1.31-2.89), primarily related to hepatic disease. No increased risk of death due to other major disease categories, e.g. cancer, cardiovascular, neurological, or infectious diseases was observed.We observed a significantly increased risk of death due to gastrointestinal diseases (primarily hepatic disease) in patients with rosacea; however, we found no increased risk of death due to other causes such as cardiovascular or neurological diseases. Although this does not necessarily imply a causal link, the findings underscore the association between rosacea and gastrointestinal disease, but also that rosacea may be associated with increased risk factors, including alcohol consumption.
- Critical Evaluation of Delayed Healing of Venous Leg Ulcers: A Retrospective Analysis in Canadian Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Aug 1.
Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are common but challenging health problems. Better understanding of the risk factors involved in delayed healing of VLUs may therefore guide individualized treatment plans to improve patient outcomes.We sought to identify the risk factors associated with delayed healing of VLUs in patients seen at a tertiary academic wound care clinic.A retrospective analysis of 554 patients who presented to the Toronto Regional Wound Healing Clinic for VLUs in a 3-year period was performed. Patient and ulcer characteristics were recorded. Multivariate analyses were performed to compare patients with ulcer resolution and those whose ulcers did not resolve after 12-month follow-up.The average age of the patients was 67.3 ± 0.7 years, with 56 % being female. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (54 %), dyslipidemia (33 %), a history of smoking (30 %), and diabetes (26 %). Ulcer resolution was associated with a smaller ulcer size (odds ratio [OR] 0.984 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.973, 0.996]), shorter ulcer duration (OR 0.704 [95 % CI 0.574, 0.865]), and dyslipidemia (OR 1.848 [95 % CI 1.052, 3.246]).Pro-healing factors associated with VLUs were a smaller ulcer size and a shorter ulcer duration. Dyslipidemia was also associated with improved healing, potentially owing to the use of statins. Patients presenting with poorer-prognosis VLUs should receive more aggressive treatment with earlier referral to vascular surgery.
- Current and Emerging Therapies for Itch Management in Psoriasis. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul 26.
Pruritus is a common and significant symptom among patients with psoriasis. Pruritus is often present beyond the borders of psoriatic plaques, and frequently affects the scalp and genital regions. Psoriatic itch may be severe and can profoundly affect quality of life and sleep, even in the context of mild-to-moderate disease. These features often make the treatment of psoriatic pruritus challenging. However, there are a variety of effective topical and systemic treatment modalities available to address this symptom. While there remains a need for treatments that specifically target psoriatic itch, newly licensed therapies including secukinumab, ixekizumab and apremilast have been shown to rapidly and effectively mediate itch reduction.
- A Clinician's Guide to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Candidiasis in Patients with Psoriasis. [Journal Article]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Aug; 17(4):329-36.
Many of the molecular pathways associated with psoriasis pathogenesis are also involved in host defense mechanisms that protect against common pathogens. Candida can stimulate the production of cytokines that trigger or exacerbate psoriasis, and many systemic psoriasis treatments may put patients at increased risk for developing oral, cutaneous, and genitourinary candidiasis. Therefore, dermatologists should regularly screen patients with psoriasis for signs of Candida infection, and take steps to effectively treat these infections to prevent worsening of psoriasis symptoms. This review provides an overview of candidiasis epidemiology in patients with psoriasis, followed by a primer on the diagnosis and treatment of superficial Candida infections, with specific guidance for patients with psoriasis. Candidiasis in patients with psoriasis typically responds to topical or oral antifungal therapy. While biologic agents used to treat moderate-to-severe psoriasis, such as tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors and interleukin-17 inhibitors, are known to increase patients' risk of developing localized candidiasis, the overall risk of infection is low, and candidiasis can be effectively managed in most patients while receiving systemic psoriasis therapies. Thus, the development of candidiasis does not usually necessitate changes to psoriasis treatment regimens.
- Evaluation of Oxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Children with Atopic Dermatitis: A Case-Control Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul 14.
Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS) has been reported in many allergic and inflammatory skin diseases, including urticaria, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD). Melatonin is a hormone secreted from the pineal gland and is a potent antioxidant.The aim of the study was to measure serum antioxidant melatonin, oxidants of nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde levels to calculate the serum oxidant-antioxidant balance based on the NO/melatonin and malondialdehyde/melatonin ratios and to determine the correlation with the disease severity in children with AD.Seventy-three children with AD and 67 healthy controls were included in the study. The clinical diagnosis of AD was based on the diagnostic criteria of Hanifin-Rajka. The severity of AD was evaluated by the scoring AD (SCORAD) index, and atopy was determined by skin prick tests (SPTs) with commercial extracts. The OS-related parameters of serum melatonin, NO, malondialdehyde, and the NO/melatonin and malondialdehyde/melatonin ratios were calculated and compared with the results of healthy controls.Serum melatonin levels were higher (p < 0.0001) and serum NO levels and the NO/melatonin and malondialdehyde/melatonin ratios were lower in children with AD than in healthy controls (p = 0.045, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, respectively). There was no difference between children with AD and healthy controls in terms of serum malondialdehyde levels (p = 0.119). Serum melatonin levels were significantly lower in severe AD than in mild AD (p = 0.012). However, in terms of serum melatonin levels, there was no difference between mild and moderate AD (p = 0.742) and moderate to severe AD (p = 0.301). There was no significant difference in serum NO and malondialdehyde levels and NO/melatonin and malondialdehyde/melatonin ratios among children with mild, moderate, and severe AD (p > 0.05). A negative correlation was found between serum melatonin levels and the SCORAD index (r = -0.252, p = 0.031), and a positive correlation was found between NO/melatonin and malondialdehyde/melatonin ratios (r = 0.511, p < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant relationship between age (≤24 or >24 months), disease duration (≤6 or >6 months), and sex for the OS-related parameters (p > 0.05).The serum oxidant-antioxidant balance was impaired in children with AD. Serum melatonin levels were higher in children with AD; however, this was negatively correlated with disease severity. Serum NO levels and NO/melatonin and malondialdehyde/melatonin ratios were lower in children with AD than in healthy controls. Melatonin might be used as a promising antioxidant to evaluate disease severity in children with AD. Thus, further studies are needed to clarify the role of melatonin in AD pathogenesis.
- Considerations for Systemic Treatment of Psoriasis in Obese Patients. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul 13.
Psoriasis is an immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease frequently associated with metabolic disorders, including diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, a growing number of studies confirm the association between psoriasis and obesity. It has been found that obesity, as measured by body mass index >30 kg/m(2), can double the risk of incident psoriasis. A positive correlation between different measures of adiposity and the severity of psoriasis has also been reported. Epidemiologic studies have also provided robust evidence confirming the association between obesity and psoriatic arthritis. Genetic, metabolic and environmental factors are all likely to contribute to these associations. Adipose tissue is an active endocrine and paracrine organ that has a key role in lipid and glucose metabolism as well as inflammation. Fat tissue is traditionally distributed into two main compartments with different metabolic characteristics, i.e. the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Particular attention has been devoted to visceral adiposity because of its contribution to inflammation and atherosclerosis. The association between psoriasis and obesity should be properly considered when choosing a systemic treatment, because it could exert negative effects on metabolic parameters, including liver enzymes, serum lipids and renal function. Obesity may increase the risk of liver and renal toxicity from methotrexate and cyclosporine. Moreover, obesity can compromise the effectiveness of systemic treatments for psoriasis (conventional and biological therapies). Dermatologists are also expected to promote a healthy lifestyle and weight loss for obese patients because they could improve metabolic parameters and responsiveness to psoriasis therapies.
- Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Atopic Dermatitis: An Evidence-Based Review. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul 7.
Complementary and alternative interventions are becoming increasingly utilized as adjuncts to conventional treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). While the number of studies continues to grow, the vastness of the subject coupled with the relatively poor quality and small size of the studies limit their usefulness to clinicians.Our aim was to comprehensively review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complementary and alternative therapies for AD.Searches were performed on PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, and the Global Resource for EczemA Trial (GREAT) databases, focusing on RCTs of alternative or complementary AD therapies, with a sample size of ≥10, through March 2015 and limited to the English language. A total of 70 manuscripts met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis.There is at least some level I evidence to support the use of acupuncture and acupressure, stress-reducing techniques such as hypnosis, massage, and biofeedback, balneotherapy, herbal preparations (with many important caveats), certain botanical oils, oral evening primrose oil, vitamin D supplementation, and topical vitamin B12. Many other therapies either have sufficient data to suggest that they are ineffective, or simply do not have enough evidence to formulate a verdict.Careful review of the literature reveals several promising therapies in this domain; such findings may help direct further research that is necessary to bolster clinical recommendations for alternative or complementary treatments of AD.
- Chemoprevention of Keratinocyte Carcinomas: An Updated Review. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul 2.
A well-established link between ultraviolet exposure and the carcinogenesis of keratinocyte carcinomas exists. Despite increased sun protection efforts, skin cancer remains the most common cancer in the USA. Numerous studies on the topic of chemoprevention investigate alternative topical, oral, and injectable agents to reduce skin cancer incidence in those at risk. Such agents include sunscreen, numerous vitamins and minerals, difluoromethylornithine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, various peptides, field therapy, statins, and polyphenols. In this focused review, we discuss the risks and benefits of chemoprotective agents reported in clinical studies conducted in humans. We report several agents that may reduce skin cancer incidence in those at risk.