American journal of clinical dermatology [journal]
- Current and Emerging Therapies for Itch Management in Psoriasis. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul 26.
Pruritus is a common and significant symptom among patients with psoriasis. Pruritus is often present beyond the borders of psoriatic plaques, and frequently affects the scalp and genital regions. Psoriatic itch may be severe and can profoundly affect quality of life and sleep, even in the context of mild-to-moderate disease. These features often make the treatment of psoriatic pruritus challenging. However, there are a variety of effective topical and systemic treatment modalities available to address this symptom. While there remains a need for treatments that specifically target psoriatic itch, newly licensed therapies including secukinumab, ixekizumab and apremilast have been shown to rapidly and effectively mediate itch reduction.
- A Clinician's Guide to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Candidiasis in Patients with Psoriasis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul 19.
Many of the molecular pathways associated with psoriasis pathogenesis are also involved in host defense mechanisms that protect against common pathogens. Candida can stimulate the production of cytokines that trigger or exacerbate psoriasis, and many systemic psoriasis treatments may put patients at increased risk for developing oral, cutaneous, and genitourinary candidiasis. Therefore, dermatologists should regularly screen patients with psoriasis for signs of Candida infection, and take steps to effectively treat these infections to prevent worsening of psoriasis symptoms. This review provides an overview of candidiasis epidemiology in patients with psoriasis, followed by a primer on the diagnosis and treatment of superficial Candida infections, with specific guidance for patients with psoriasis. Candidiasis in patients with psoriasis typically responds to topical or oral antifungal therapy. While biologic agents used to treat moderate-to-severe psoriasis, such as tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors and interleukin-17 inhibitors, are known to increase patients' risk of developing localized candidiasis, the overall risk of infection is low, and candidiasis can be effectively managed in most patients while receiving systemic psoriasis therapies. Thus, the development of candidiasis does not usually necessitate changes to psoriasis treatment regimens.
- Evaluation of Oxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Children with Atopic Dermatitis: A Case-Control Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul 14.
Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS) has been reported in many allergic and inflammatory skin diseases, including urticaria, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD). Melatonin is a hormone secreted from the pineal gland and is a potent antioxidant.The aim of the study was to measure serum antioxidant melatonin, oxidants of nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde levels to calculate the serum oxidant-antioxidant balance based on the NO/melatonin and malondialdehyde/melatonin ratios and to determine the correlation with the disease severity in children with AD.Seventy-three children with AD and 67 healthy controls were included in the study. The clinical diagnosis of AD was based on the diagnostic criteria of Hanifin-Rajka. The severity of AD was evaluated by the scoring AD (SCORAD) index, and atopy was determined by skin prick tests (SPTs) with commercial extracts. The OS-related parameters of serum melatonin, NO, malondialdehyde, and the NO/melatonin and malondialdehyde/melatonin ratios were calculated and compared with the results of healthy controls.Serum melatonin levels were higher (p < 0.0001) and serum NO levels and the NO/melatonin and malondialdehyde/melatonin ratios were lower in children with AD than in healthy controls (p = 0.045, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, respectively). There was no difference between children with AD and healthy controls in terms of serum malondialdehyde levels (p = 0.119). Serum melatonin levels were significantly lower in severe AD than in mild AD (p = 0.012). However, in terms of serum melatonin levels, there was no difference between mild and moderate AD (p = 0.742) and moderate to severe AD (p = 0.301). There was no significant difference in serum NO and malondialdehyde levels and NO/melatonin and malondialdehyde/melatonin ratios among children with mild, moderate, and severe AD (p > 0.05). A negative correlation was found between serum melatonin levels and the SCORAD index (r = -0.252, p = 0.031), and a positive correlation was found between NO/melatonin and malondialdehyde/melatonin ratios (r = 0.511, p < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant relationship between age (≤24 or >24 months), disease duration (≤6 or >6 months), and sex for the OS-related parameters (p > 0.05).The serum oxidant-antioxidant balance was impaired in children with AD. Serum melatonin levels were higher in children with AD; however, this was negatively correlated with disease severity. Serum NO levels and NO/melatonin and malondialdehyde/melatonin ratios were lower in children with AD than in healthy controls. Melatonin might be used as a promising antioxidant to evaluate disease severity in children with AD. Thus, further studies are needed to clarify the role of melatonin in AD pathogenesis.
- Considerations for Systemic Treatment of Psoriasis in Obese Patients. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul 13.
Psoriasis is an immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease frequently associated with metabolic disorders, including diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, a growing number of studies confirm the association between psoriasis and obesity. It has been found that obesity, as measured by body mass index >30 kg/m(2), can double the risk of incident psoriasis. A positive correlation between different measures of adiposity and the severity of psoriasis has also been reported. Epidemiologic studies have also provided robust evidence confirming the association between obesity and psoriatic arthritis. Genetic, metabolic and environmental factors are all likely to contribute to these associations. Adipose tissue is an active endocrine and paracrine organ that has a key role in lipid and glucose metabolism as well as inflammation. Fat tissue is traditionally distributed into two main compartments with different metabolic characteristics, i.e. the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Particular attention has been devoted to visceral adiposity because of its contribution to inflammation and atherosclerosis. The association between psoriasis and obesity should be properly considered when choosing a systemic treatment, because it could exert negative effects on metabolic parameters, including liver enzymes, serum lipids and renal function. Obesity may increase the risk of liver and renal toxicity from methotrexate and cyclosporine. Moreover, obesity can compromise the effectiveness of systemic treatments for psoriasis (conventional and biological therapies). Dermatologists are also expected to promote a healthy lifestyle and weight loss for obese patients because they could improve metabolic parameters and responsiveness to psoriasis therapies.
- Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Atopic Dermatitis: An Evidence-Based Review. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul 7.
Complementary and alternative interventions are becoming increasingly utilized as adjuncts to conventional treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). While the number of studies continues to grow, the vastness of the subject coupled with the relatively poor quality and small size of the studies limit their usefulness to clinicians.Our aim was to comprehensively review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complementary and alternative therapies for AD.Searches were performed on PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, and the Global Resource for EczemA Trial (GREAT) databases, focusing on RCTs of alternative or complementary AD therapies, with a sample size of ≥10, through March 2015 and limited to the English language. A total of 70 manuscripts met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis.There is at least some level I evidence to support the use of acupuncture and acupressure, stress-reducing techniques such as hypnosis, massage, and biofeedback, balneotherapy, herbal preparations (with many important caveats), certain botanical oils, oral evening primrose oil, vitamin D supplementation, and topical vitamin B12. Many other therapies either have sufficient data to suggest that they are ineffective, or simply do not have enough evidence to formulate a verdict.Careful review of the literature reveals several promising therapies in this domain; such findings may help direct further research that is necessary to bolster clinical recommendations for alternative or complementary treatments of AD.
- Chemoprevention of Keratinocyte Carcinomas: An Updated Review. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul 2.
A well-established link between ultraviolet exposure and the carcinogenesis of keratinocyte carcinomas exists. Despite increased sun protection efforts, skin cancer remains the most common cancer in the USA. Numerous studies on the topic of chemoprevention investigate alternative topical, oral, and injectable agents to reduce skin cancer incidence in those at risk. Such agents include sunscreen, numerous vitamins and minerals, difluoromethylornithine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, various peptides, field therapy, statins, and polyphenols. In this focused review, we discuss the risks and benefits of chemoprotective agents reported in clinical studies conducted in humans. We report several agents that may reduce skin cancer incidence in those at risk.
- Immunologic Targets in Atopic Dermatitis and Emerging Therapies: An Update. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul 1.
Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases. It usually begins in childhood, has a considerable impact on patients' quality of life, and incurs substantial healthcare costs. The standard-of-care treatments for patients with moderate to severe disease are very limited and have variable and typically insufficient efficacy and many side effects, some of which are quite serious. However, over the last decade, considerable advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis have paved the way for a number of new treatments. Most notable are the drugs that target the Th2-polarized immune system, which is thought to play a key role in many of the signs and symptoms characteristic of this disease. In this article, we briefly review the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis, while noting that each patient's disease phenotype is likely due to a unique interplay of several disease-specific dysregulated pathways. Lastly, we cover emerging therapies for atopic dermatitis, focusing on those that target specific components of the immune system, which are altered in atopic dermatitis. The hope is that these new biologics or small-molecule antagonists, which have high specificity for their target molecules, will decrease the undesirable side effects caused by off-target effects commonly observed with current immunosuppressive agents that are characterized by broad biological actions.
- Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Review of High-Risk and Metastatic Disease. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Jun 29.
Non-melanoma skin cancer represents one-third of all malignancies and its incidence is expected to rise until the year 2040. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) represents 20 % of all non-melanoma skin cancer and is a deadly threat owing to its ability to metastasize to any organ in the body. Therefore, a better understanding of cSCC is essential to strengthen preventative measures and curable treatment options. Currently, research demonstrates that cSCC is diagnosed at a rate of 15-35 per 100,000 people and is expected to increase 2-4 % per year. With respect to metastatic cSCC, this disease is more common in men; people over the age of 75 years; and inhabitants of the south and mid-west USA. In 2010, the American Joint Committee on Cancer updated the Cancer Staging Manual's primary tumor designation to now include high-risk factors; however, factors such as immunosuppression and tumor recurrence were not included. Other staging systems such as Brigham and Women's Hospital have allowed for increased stratification of cSCC. High-risk cSCC is defined as a cSCC that is staged as N0, extends beyond basement membrane, and has high-risk features associated with sub-clinical metastasis. High-risk features are depth of invasion (>2 mm), poor histological differentiation, high-risk anatomic location (face, ear, pre/post auricular, genitalia, hands, and feet), perineural involvement, recurrence, multiple cSCC tumors, and immunosuppression. Epidermal growth factor receptor and nuclear active IκB kinase (IKK) expression are also predictive of metastatic capabilities. Clinically, the initial lesions of a cSCC tumor can present as a painless plaque-like or verrucous tumor that can ultimately progress to being large, necrotic, and infected. Tumors can also present with paresthesias or lymphadenopathy depending on the location involved. With respect to prognosis, metastatic cSCC is lethal, with several large studies demonstrating a mortality rate of >70 %. Therefore, treatment of metastatic cSCC is difficult and depends on the location involved and extent of metastasis. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and any combination of the above. Surgery alone can be used for metastatic cSCC treatment, but is not as effective as surgery in conjunction with radiation therapy. Radiation therapy has some success as a monotherapy in low-risk or cosmetically sensitive areas such as the external ear, eyelid or nose. According to the 2013 National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines, cisplatin as a single agent or combined with 5-fluorouracil hold the strongest support for the treatment of metastatic cSCC; however, the supporting evidence is inconsistent and a curative chemotherapeutic approach is still lacking. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors are a newer class of agents being used in metastatic cSCC and hold some promise as a therapy for this disease. Other areas of interest in finding curative treatments for metastatic cSCC include p53, hypermethylation of specific genes, chromatin remodeling genes, and the RAS/RTK/PI3K pathway. This review addresses the epidemiology, staging, risk factors, clinical presentation, management, and new trends in the treatment of high-risk and metastatic cSCC.
- Subcorneal Pustular Dermatosis: A Review of 30 Years of Progress. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Jun 27.
Subcorneal pustular dermatosis (SPD), also known as Sneddon-Wilkinson disease, is a rare, benign yet relapsing pustular dermatosis. Its incidence and prevalence have not been well studied. It characteristically presents as hypopyon pustules on the trunk and intertriginous areas of the body. SPD is similar to two other disease entities. Both SPD-type immunoglobulin (Ig)-A pemphigus and annular pustular psoriasis clinically and histologically present similarly to SPD. Immunologic studies separate SPD-type IgA pemphigus from SPD and pustular psoriasis. However, there is still an unclear designation as to whether SPD is its own entity distinct from pustular psoriasis, as the once thought characteristic histologic picture of psoriasis does not hold true for pustular psoriasis. SPD has been reported to occur in association with several neoplastic, immunologic, and inflammatory conditions. Dapsone remains the first-line treatment for SPD, although dapsone-resistant cases have been increasingly reported. Other therapies have been used singly or as adjunctive therapy with success, such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, and ultraviolet light therapy. This article provides a review of the last 30 years of available literature, with a focus on successful treatment options and a suggestion for reappraisal of the classification of SPD.
- Got the Travel Bug? A Review of Common Infections, Infestations, Bites, and Stings Among Returning Travelers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Jun 25.
The popularity of international travel continues to increase among Americans, even though they often experience subsequent illness on return from their journey. The pathogens responsible are not necessarily endemic to the destination itself but are often the result of poor sanitary conditions or activities engaged in while away. Skin disease ranks third among all medical concerns in returning travelers. This review addresses the pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of the most common skin diseases in returning travelers: insect bites and bedbugs, cutaneous larva migrans, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis, leishmaniasis, viral exanthems, and marine envenomation. Primary care physicians and dermatologists should be familiar with these illnesses and a general approach to their evaluation and management.