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American journal of clinical dermatology [journal]
- Biologic Therapy with or Without Topical Treatment in Psoriasis: What Does the Current Evidence Say? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Jul 16.
Biologic therapy represents a relatively new class of drugs which have revolutionized the treatment of psoriasis and are used with increasing frequency in order to control this chronic, systemic inflammatory disease. However, it is unclear what role there is for combination therapy of biologics with traditional topical agents. The purpose of this article is to assess the literature on the role of topical agents as adjuvants to biological treatments in the treatment of psoriasis and identify areas for further research. A MEDLINE search was performed in order to identify English-language publications from 1996 to 2014 examining combination biologic therapy with topical medications in the treatment of psoriasis. Data from these clinical studies are summarized and the outcomes are discussed. In general, the addition of adjuvant topical therapy to systemic biologic therapy allowed for a reduction in dosage and side effects of both agents, maintenance of initial response to biologics, treatment of recalcitrant lesions in partial responders, and potential acceleration of response to biologic therapies. The current data, though limited, suggest that using topical therapies as adjunct treatment to biologics is a well tolerated and effective means of controlling psoriasis and improving quality of life for patients. However, the treating physician should remain attentive to signs of adverse events and seek opportunities to reduce the dose or treatment frequency during chronic use.
- Isotretinoin Use and Celiac Disease: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Jul 15.
Isotretinoin, a vitamin A analogue, can promote a pro-inflammatory milieu in the small intestine in response to dietary antigens. We hypothesized that oral isotretinoin exposure would increase the risk of celiac disease (CD).We contacted all 28 pathology departments in Sweden, and through biopsy reports identified 26,739 individuals with CD. We then compared the prevalence of ever using oral isotretinoin to the prevalence in 134,277 matched controls through conditional logistic regression. Data on isotretinoin exposure were obtained from the national Swedish Prescribed Drug Registry. As the only indication for isotretinoin use in Sweden is acne, we also examined its relationship to CD. Data on acne were obtained from the Swedish Patient Registry.Ninety-three individuals with CD (0.35 %) and 378 matched controls (0.28 %) had a prescription of isotretinoin. This corresponded to an odds ratio (OR) of 1.22 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.97-1.54]. Risk estimates were similar in men and women, and when we restricted our data to individuals diagnosed after the start of the Prescribed Drug Registry. Restricting our analyses to individuals diagnosed aged 12-45 years did not influence the risk estimates (OR 1.38, 95 % CI 0.97-1.97). Meanwhile, having a diagnosis of acne was positively associated with CD (OR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.20-1.51).This study found no association between isotretinoin use and CD, but a small excess risk of CD in patients with a diagnosis of acne.
- Optimal Management of Skin Cancer in Immunosuppressed Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Jul 12.
Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in humans with basal cell carcinoma representing the majority of cases in the general population. The prevalence of skin cancer is increased amongst immunosuppressed patients such as those with lymphoproliferative disorders including non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia or those with iatrogenic immunosuppression following organ transplantation. In addition, these patients experience greater morbidity and mortality associated with skin cancers. The most common skin cancer in immunosuppressed patients is squamous cell carcinoma, which often presents with more aggressive features and has a greater rate of metastasis. This article reviews the risk factors, etiology, clinical presentation, and prevalence of skin cancer amongst immunosuppressed patients, including organ transplant, lymphoproliferative disorders, autoimmune disorders, and human immunodeficiency virus. We also provide a comprehensive review of treatment guidelines for immunosuppressed patients with cutaneous malignancy. Surgical therapy is the cornerstone of treatment; however, we also discuss pharmacologic treatment options, lifestyle modifications, and revision of immunosuppressive regimens.
- Alopecia Areata: An Evidence-Based Treatment Update. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Jul 8.
There is no cure for alopecia areata, nor is there any universally proven therapy that induces and sustains remission. Treatment choices are frequently based on disease duration, extent, and activity as well as the age of the patient.Our objective was to review all randomized controlled studies on the treatment of alopecia areata.We performed a search in the biomedical literature database PubMed, and used the terms 'alopecia areata treatment' and article type 'randomized controlled trials'.Following this algorithm, we reviewed, analyzed, and reported on 29 trials that examined the efficacy of anthralin, antidepressants, biologics, calcineurin inhibitors, corticosteroids (topical and systemic), minoxidil, prostaglandin analogs, sensitizers, and a miscellaneous group of topical and oral drugs with less scientific evidence (aromatherapy, photodynamic therapy, azelaic acid, garlic gel, bexarotene, triiodothyronine, inosiplex, and total glucosides of paeony).Using the American College of Physicians Guideline grading system, our assessment is that the majority of published randomized controlled studies of alopecia areata are only of moderate quality. A number of treatments were found to be effective, for example, topical and oral corticosteroids and the sensitizing agents diphenylcyclopropenone and dinitrochlorobenzene; however, most studies had major limitations that hinder the interpretation of these results.
- Evidence or Experience: That is the Question. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Jul 8.
- Relationship Between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Vitiligo: A Prospective Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Jul 2.
Helicobacter pylori is a worldwide bacteria that may affect several extra-gastric systems, including the endocrine, hematologic, vascular, respiratory, immune, and skin. Several skin diseases, including chronic urticaria, alopecia areata, psoriasis, and systemic lupus erythematosis have been found to be associated with H. pylori infection.To our knowledge, there are no data showing an association between H. pylori and vitiligo. Therefore, in this study, we wanted to evaluate the relationship between H. pylori and vitiligo.This study is a prospective study carried out in our Gastroenterology and Dermatology and Venereology departments of the Ankara Education and Research Hospital (Ankara, Turkey) between July 2013 and December 2013. Seventy-nine consecutive patients with vitiligo and 72 patients with telogen effluvium (TE) were recruited from the dermatology outpatient clinic. A total of 133 patients with vitiligo (n = 68) and TE (n = 65) [excluding 18 patients who had suspicious urea breath test (UBT) results] were included in the study. All individuals were tested for H. pylori IgG and CagA. Also, a UBT was performed to detect the presence of H. pylori infection.There were significantly higher rates of H. pylori positivity, H. pylori CagA, and IgG in serum in the vitiligo group than in the TE group (p < 0.05). The number of patients with dyspepsia was significantly higher in the vitiligo group than in the TE group. No statistically significant relationship was seen between H. pylori positivity, CagA, H. pylori IgG, dyspepsia, and the Vitiligo Disease Activity score (p > 0.05). Also, when patients with vitiligo were divided into localized and generalized types of vitiligo, there was no association between vitiligo involvement pattern and H. pylori positivity, CagA, H. pylori IgG, and dyspepsia (p > 0.05).Additional studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of H. pylori eradication on the clinical course of vitiligo. Further studies are also needed to explain the relationship between H. pylori and the pathogenesis of vitiligo.
- Interferon-Based Treatment for Patients with Mycosis Fungoides and Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Case Series. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Jun 17.
Interferon (IFN) is a treatment option for both mycosis fungoides (MF) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Chemotherapy and anti-HCV treatment are generally not administered concurrently for fear of overlapping side effects.Herein, we report on a subset of patients who received IFN-containing therapy for MF and HCV infection simultaneously. We aimed to evaluate whether concomitant treatment for MF and HCV is effective and well tolerated.We reviewed the records of patients who were seen at MD Anderson Cancer Center from 2008 to 2013 with histologically confirmed MF and chronic HCV infection, and were treated with simultaneous focus on both diseases.Six HCV-infected patients with MF received simultaneous anti-HCV and anti-MF treatment with IFN-containing therapy. Two patients achieved sustained virological response (regarded as virological cure). They both received antiviral combination therapy with ribavirin. All patients experienced some improvement of their cutaneous lesions, with two of them achieving complete MF remission. All six patients developed side effects while receiving treatment; two of them had grade 4 toxic effects requiring treatment discontinuation.IFN-based therapy can be administered for MF and HCV infection concurrently to provide not only virological but also oncological benefits to chronically HCV-infected MF patients. However, this regimen is poorly tolerated. Further studies are warranted in this patient population, using different treatment combinations with improved efficacy, safety, and tolerability.
- A Review of Novel Therapies for Melanoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Jun 14.
This review summarizes results from major recent trials regarding novel therapeutic agents in melanoma. The topics discussed include targeted therapy with BRAF (V-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B) inhibitors (vemurafenib and dabrafenib), MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase) inhibitors (trametinib), bcr-abl/c-kit/PDGF-R inhibitors (imatinib), and angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab and aflibercept), as well as immunotherapy with anti-CTLA-4 (anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4) antibodies (ipilimumab), anti-PD (anti-programmed death receptor) antibodies (nivolumab and lambrolizumab), and anti-PD-L (anti-programmed death ligand) antibodies. Various combinations of these agents, as well as adjunctive GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), T-VEC (talimogene laherparepvec) oncolytic viruses, and novel chemotherapeutic agents, are also described. Despite the tremendous advances that these novel treatments have created, optimal therapeutic agent selection remains a highly individualized decision. Melanoma therapy has vastly progressed since the days when dacarbazine was the sole option for advanced melanoma patients. The molecular understanding of melanoma pathogenesis has yielded a brighter future for advanced melanoma patients.
- Diabetic foot ulcer: an evidence-based treatment update. [Journal Article]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Jul; 15(3):267-81.
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are extremely debilitating and difficult to treat. Multidisciplinary management, patient education, glucose control, debridement, offloading, infection control, and adequate perfusion are the mainstays of standard care endorsed by most practice guidelines. Adjunctive therapies represent new treatment modalities endorsed in recent years, though many lack significant high-powered studies to support their use as standard of care.This update intends to identify recent, exclusively high level, evidence-based evaluations of DFU therapies. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research.PubMed, Embase, Ovid Technologies, CINAHL, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for recent systematic reviews published after 2004, and randomized controlled trials published in 2012-2013 that evaluated treatment modalities for DFUs. These papers are reviewed and the quality of available evidence is discussed.A total of 34 studies met inclusion criteria. Studied therapies include debridement, off-loading, negative pressure therapy, dressings, topical therapies, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, growth factors, bioengineered skin substitutes, electrophysical therapy, and alternative therapy. Good-quality evidence is lacking to justify the use of many of these therapies, with the exception of standard care (offloading, debridement) and possibly negative pressure wound therapy.There is an overall lack of high-level evidence in new adjunctive management of DFU. Comparison of different treatment modalities is difficult, since existing studies are not standardized.Many therapeutic modalities are available to treat DFU. Quality high-level evidence exists for standard care such as off-loading. Evidence for adjunctive therapies such as negative pressure wound therapy, skin substitutes, and platelet-derived growth factor can help guide adjunctive care but limitations exist in terms of evidence quality.
- Hirsutism: an evidence-based treatment update. [Journal Article]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Jul; 15(3):247-66.
Hirsutism has a relatively high prevalence among women. Depending upon societal and ethnic norms, it can cause significant psychosocial distress. Importantly, hirsutism may be associated with underlying disorders and co-morbidities. Hirsutism should not simply be looked upon as an issue of cosmesis. Patients require appropriate evaluation so that underlying etiologies and associated sequelae are recognized and managed. Treatment of hirsutism often requires a multidisciplinary approach, and a variety of physical or pharmacologic modalities can be employed. Efficacy of these therapies is varied and depends, among other things, upon patient factors including the underlying etiology, hormonal drive, and local tissue sensitivity to androgens.The objective of this paper is to review and summarize current evidence evaluating the efficacy of various treatment modalities for hirsutism in premenopausal women.Online databases were searched to identify all relevant prior systematic reviews and meta-analyses as well as recently published (2012-present) randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on hirsutism treatment.Four recently published RCTs met criteria for inclusion in our review. In addition, one meta-analysis and one systematic review/treatment guideline were identified in the recent literature. Physical modalities and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) remain first-line treatments. Evidence supports the use of electrolysis for permanent hair removal in localized areas and lasers (particularly alexandrite and diode lasers) for permanent hair reduction. Topical eflornithine can be used as monotherapy for mild hirsutism and as an adjunct therapy with lasers or pharmacotherapy in more severe cases. Combined OCPs as a class are superior to placebo; however, antiandrogenic and low-dose neutral OCPs may be slightly more efficacious in improving hirsutism compared with other types of OCPs. Antiandrogens are indicated for moderate to severe hirsutism, with spironolactone being the first-line antiandrogen and finasteride and cyproterone acetate being second-line antiandrogens. Due to its risk for hepatotoxicity, flutamide is not considered a first-line therapy. If used, the lowest effective dose should be administered with careful monitoring of liver enzymes. Monotherapy with an insulin sensitizer does not significantly improve hirsutism. While insulin sensitizers improve important metabolic and endocrine aberrations in polycystic ovary syndrome, they are not recommended when hirsutism is the sole indication for use. Lifestyle modification counseling is recommended. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs and glucocorticoids are only recommended in specific circumstances. Additional therapies without sufficient supportive evidence of efficacy are ovarian surgery, statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors), and vitamin D supplementation.In general, most therapies garner recommendations that are weak (where the estimates of benefits versus risks of therapy are either closely balanced or uncertain) and are based on low- to moderate-quality evidence.Risks and benefits of treatment must be carefully considered and discussed with the patient. Expectations for efficacy should be appropriately set. A minimum of 6 months is required to see benefit from pharmacotherapy and lifelong treatment is often necessary for sustained benefit.