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American journal of clinical dermatology [journal]
- Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Axilla: Review of the World Literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Feb 25.
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the axilla is rare; indeed, 70 axillary BCCs have been described in 69 patients. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on BCC, axilla, and axillary. Relevant papers were reviewed and the characteristics of individuals with BCC of the axilla were summarized. The calculated prevalence of axillary BCC was 0.17 %. They occurred predominantly in Caucasians. The majority of patients had no obvious BCC-associated risk factors. They were observed 1.2 times more often in men than in women and twice as often in the right axilla than the left axilla. They frequently presented as an asymptomatic nodule; however, associated features have included elongation of the tumor along the axillary skin lines, ulceration, and pigmentation. The axillary tumor was typically associated with either the superficial or the nodular histologic subtype of BCC. The prognosis for these patients was usually excellent following complete removal or destruction of the tumor. In conclusion, axillary BCC is a rare clinical variant of this type of skin cancer that usually presents as an asymptomatic nodule in an individual who does not have any traditional risk factors for this malignancy. The cancer was typically associated with a non-aggressive histologic subtype. Recurrence or metastasis was uncommon following treatment of the primary tumor.
- Systemic Therapies for Psoriasis: An Evidence-Based Update. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Feb 5.
The treatment of psoriasis has evolved over the years, with the focus now largely on the use of biologic agents. With treatment options expanding, evidence-based studies to guide physicians' treatment decisions become increasingly important.Our objective was to review current literature to provide an evidence-based update on systemic therapies for psoriasis.A systematic review of the literature was conducted from 1 January 2012 through 1 July 2013 to identify all randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews of systemic psoriasis treatments.A total of 46 publications were identified and reviewed. Randomized clinical trials for the treatment of psoriasis focused heavily on biologic agents, both currently approved agents and anti-interleukin (IL)-17 agents in development. The anti-IL-17 agents appear effective according to phase II clinical trials. Several new oral agents are being studied, and, although they do not appear as effective as the biologic agents, they may be an option as an alternative to traditional oral agents, with more favorable safety profiles. Several systematic reviews focused on efficacy among the biologics, with infliximab consistently superior to the others, and etanercept the least effective of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors. Longer-term safety data on biologics is now available and encouraging.Current studies of traditional oral therapies are lacking.Current studies continue to support the use of biologic agents in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis, with better efficacy and safety profiles than traditional systemic agents. Newer anti-IL-17 agents and several new oral agents are in development and have shown promise in clinical trials.
- Medical Adherence to Acne Therapy: A Systematic Review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Jan 31.
Poor adherence of acne patients to treatment may equate to poor clinical efficacy, increased healthcare costs, and unnecessary treatments. Authors have investigated risk factors for poor medical adherence and how to improve this difficult problem in the context of acne.This systematic review aims to describe what methods have been used to measure adherence, what is known about acne patients' adherence to treatment, and the factors affecting adherence.A MEDLINE search was performed for randomized controlled trials published between 1978 and June 2013, focusing on patient adherence to prescribed acne medications. A test for equality of proportions was performed on studies of similar design to collectively analyze adherence to oral versus topical medication. The self-reported adherence data collected from these clinical trials were then compared with adherence data from a pharmacy database study.Studies varied in modalities of data collection, but the majority utilized subjective methods. Topical therapies were more often studied than oral. The overall oral adherence rate, as calculated by a test of equality of proportions, was 76.3 %, while the overall topical adherence rate was 75.8 % (p = 0.927). The occurrence of side effects and young age were cited as the top reasons for poor adherence, followed by forgetfulness.The MEDLINE search resulted in a limited sample of adherence studies. In addition, there is currently no standardized or fully validated method of measurement, allowing for variability in what was considered 'adherent'. Lastly, data collected via subjective methods cannot guarantee reliable results.Overall, the values reflected a population adherent to both topical and oral medications, with no significant difference in adherence between the two. However, the methodologies used by many of the studies were weak, and the findings are not consistent with results of more objective measures of adherence. The leading factors that contribute to poor adherence may be reduced with enhanced patient consultation, reminder systems, and education.
- Efficacy and Safety of a Low-level Laser Device in the Treatment of Male and Female Pattern Hair Loss: A Multicenter, Randomized, Sham Device-controlled, Double-blind Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Jan 29.
Male and female pattern hair loss are common, chronic dermatologic disorders with limited therapeutic options. In recent years, a number of commercial devices using low-level laser therapy have been promoted, but there have been little peer-reviewed data on their efficacy.To determine whether treatment with a low-level laser device, the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb(®), increases terminal hair density in both men and women with pattern hair loss.Randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind clinical trials were conducted at multiple institutional and private practices. A total of 146 male and 188 female subjects with pattern hair loss were screened. A total of 128 male and 141 female subjects were randomized to receive either a lasercomb (one of three models) or a sham device in concealed sealed packets, and were treated on the whole scalp three times a week for 26 weeks. Terminal hair density of the target area was evaluated at baseline and at 16- and 26-week follow-ups, and analyzed to determine whether the hypothesis formulated prior to data collection, that lasercomb treatment would increase terminal hair density, was correct. The site investigators and the subjects remained blinded to the type of device they dispensed/received throughout the study. The evaluator of masked digital photographs was blinded to which trial arm the subject belonged.Seventy-eight, 63, 49, and 79 subjects were randomized in four trials of 9-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 12-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 7-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, and 9- and 12-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, compared with the sham device, respectively. Nineteen female and 25 male subjects were lost to follow-up. Among the remaining 122 female and 103 male subjects in the efficacy analysis, the mean terminal hair count at 26 weeks increased from baseline by 20.2, 20.6, 18.4, 20.9, and 25.7 per cm(2) in 9-beam lasercomb-treated female subjects, 12-beam lasercomb-treated female subjects, 7-beam lasercomb-treated male subjects, and 9- and 12-beam lasercomb-treated male subjects, respectively, compared with 2.8 (p < 0.0001), 3.0 (p < 0.0001), 1.6 (p = 0.0017), 9.4 (p = 0.0249), and 9.4 (p = 0.0028) in sham-treated subjects (95 % confidence interval). The increase in terminal hair density was independent of the age and sex of the subject and the lasercomb model. Additionally, a higher percentage of lasercomb-treated subjects reported overall improvement of hair loss condition and thickness and fullness of hair in self-assessment, compared with sham-treated subjects. No serious adverse events were reported in any subject receiving the lasercomb in any of the four trials.We observed a statistically significant difference in the increase in terminal hair density between lasercomb- and sham-treated subjects. No serious adverse events were reported. Our results suggest that low-level laser treatment may be an effective option to treat pattern hair loss in both men and women. Additional studies should be considered to determine the long-term effects of low-level laser treatment on hair growth and maintenance, and to optimize laser modality.
- Atopic Dermatitis: An Evidence-Based Treatment Update. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Jan 25.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory disorder of skin with significant comorbidities. AD care often requires a combination of treatment approaches, including emollients, topical steroids, systemic immunosuppressants and/or phototherapy.Our purpose was to review recent randomized controlled trials (RCT) and systematic reviews of AD treatments.A MEDLINE search was performed focusing on RCTs of AD treatments, with a sample size ≥15, and systematic reviews published from 2011 to 2013, limited to the English language. A total of 53 manuscripts met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, including 44 RCTs and nine systematic reviews.Investigator-initiated RCTs support the use of the systemic agents cyclosporine, methotrexate, azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil. In one RCT, petrolatum was found to be as effective as creams containing ceramides or glycyrrhetinic acid. Additional therapeutic approaches supported by RCTs include balneotherapy, oral and/or topical probiotics, nutritional interventions, vitamin D with or without vitamin E supplementation, as well as several new topical and complementary medicines.Advances have been made with respect to AD treatment in the past few years through the use of well designed RCTs and comparative efficacy studies. However, more well designed RCTs and investigator-initiated studies are needed in order to improve the care of AD patients.
- Levels of Physical Activity in Patients with Severe Psoriasis: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Jan 24.
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, secondary to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and premature atherosclerosis. Physical activity is a vital component in prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. Few studies have examined the level of physical activity in psoriasis patients, using validated questionnaires or other objective assessment tools.The aim of this study was to analyze and compare physical activity undertaken by patients with severe psoriasis and healthy controls, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-S), a validated instrument for assessing physical activity.Ninety patients with severe plaque-type psoriasis and 160 healthy subjects were enrolled in the present study. Physical activity was evaluated using IPAQ-S.Psoriasis patients had reduced levels of physical activity compared with non-psoriasis patients, regardless of sex or whether the variable was continuous or categorical. The odds ratio for low-level physical activity for psoriasis patients, compared with controls, was 3.42 (95 % CI 1.47-7.91), indicating that this severe psoriasis population did not undertake recommended levels of physical activity.Psoriasis patients exhibit decreased levels of physical activity, possibly for both psychological and physiological reasons. The lack of physical activity may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in psoriasis patients, in addition to the intrinsic risks related to systemic inflammation and psoriasis-linked comorbidities. Regular physical activity should be encouraged in all psoriasis patients because of its beneficial effects on systemic inflammation and cardiometabolic comorbidities associated with psoriasis.
- Treatment of Acne in Children. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Jan 15.
Acne is a common skin condition in adolescents. It is not uncommon in childhood and it persists into adulthood. A broad range of acne treatments are available and have been shown to be safe and effective in adolescents and adults. However, there is limited literature regarding acne treatment in childhood and its available therapeutic options. It seems reasonable to extrapolate findings of the various studies reported on treatment of acne in the adolescent and adult age group, with the exclusion of the use of tetracycline derivatives. As clinicians, we must be more familiar with the clinical presentation of acne and available treatment options in our younger patients. Early recognition of acne with prompt and appropriate initiation of therapy in childhood will help prevent severe scarring in children.
- Treatment of hereditary epidermolysis bullosa: updates and future prospects. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Feb; 15(1):1-6.
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) represents a group of inherited blistering skin diseases, some forms of which are associated with considerable morbidity and increased mortality. Notably, in recessive dystrophic EB there can be extensive muco-cutaneous fragility and disease complications such as scars, contractures, anemia, malnutrition, and malignancy. Currently, there is no effective therapy or cure for EB. Over the last decade, however, a number of important advances have been made that are bringing new treatments closer to the clinic, including gene therapy, protein replacement therapy, cell therapies [allogeneic fibroblasts, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), bone marrow stem cell transplantation, culturing/grafting revertant mosaic keratinocytes], gene editing/engineering, and clinical application of inducible pluripotent stem cells. Although a cure for EB still remains elusive, recent data on animal models and initial human clinical trials have raised the expectations of patients, clinicians, and researchers that disease modification and improved quality of life are feasible goals. Furthermore, the lessons learned in treating EB are likely to have significant implications for improving the management of other genetic diseases.
- Oral therapy for onychomycosis: an evidence-based review. [Journal Article]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Feb; 15(1):17-36.
Onychomycosis is a very common fungal infection of the nail apparatus; however, it is very hard to treat, even when the causative agent is identified, and usually requires prolonged systemic antifungal therapy. Until the 1990s, oral treatment options included only griseofulvin and ketoconazole, and the cure rate was very low. New generations of antimycotics, such as fluconazole, itraconazole and terbinafine have improved treatment success.Literature was identified by performing a PubMed Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL, and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) search. Prospective and randomized clinical trials were chosen to be included in this review. Forty-six trials were included.Fluconazole, itraconazole and terbinafine are effective in the treatment of onychomycosis and have a good safety profile. When a dermatophyte is the pathogen, terbinafine produces the best results. For Candida and nondermatophyte infections, the azoles, mainly itraconazole, are the recommended therapy.In the majority of the studies, terbinafine treatment showed a higher cure ratio than the other drugs for dermatophyte onychomycosis.
- Dermatitis herpetiformis: clinical presentations are independent of manifestations of celiac disease. [Journal Article]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Feb; 15(1):51-6.
Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a skin manifestation of celiac disease (CD), and is often the presenting and only complaint. There are few data comparing those with DH who present only with DH and those with DH who present mainly due to CD.We compared the prevalence of features usually associated with CD in those who presented with DH with patients in whom DH was part of a typical CD presentation.A cross-sectional study of a prospectively maintained database of 1,050 patients with CD was analyzed. Only biopsy-diagnosed patients were analyzed for small bowel findings. All patients were included in the analysis of autoimmune diseases and lymphoma incidence. Small bowel biopsies were classified into mild and severe.The prevalence of villous atrophy was significantly higher in the patients who presented with CD than in those who presented with DH alone (61.8 vs. 12.5%; p = 0.005). However, the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and lymphoma occurred at a similar rate in patients with DH and patients with CD without DH.Patients who present with CD and concurrent DH are more likely to have more severe pathology than those with predominantly DH, although nutritional deficiencies are similar between the two groups. It is important to screen for nutritional deficiencies in patients with DH, irrespective of the presence of typical CD manifestations.