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American journal of clinical dermatology [journal]
- Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Clinical Presentations Are Independent of Manifestations of Celiac Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2013 Nov 30.
Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a skin manifestation of celiac disease (CD), and is often the presenting and only complaint. There are few data comparing those with DH who present only with DH and those with DH who present mainly due to CD.We compared the prevalence of features usually associated with CD in those who presented with DH with patients in whom DH was part of a typical CD presentation.A cross-sectional study of a prospectively maintained database of 1,050 patients with CD was analyzed. Only biopsy-diagnosed patients were analyzed for small bowel findings. All patients were included in the analysis of autoimmune diseases and lymphoma incidence. Small bowel biopsies were classified into mild and severe.The prevalence of villous atrophy was significantly higher in the patients who presented with CD than in those who presented with DH alone (61.8 vs. 12.5 %; p = 0.005). However, the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and lymphoma occurred at a similar rate in patients with DH and patients with CD without DH.Patients who present with CD and concurrent DH are more likely to have more severe pathology than those with predominantly DH, although nutritional deficiencies are similar between the two groups. It is important to screen for nutritional deficiencies in patients with DH, irrespective of the presence of typical CD manifestations.
- Safety and Tolerability of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Inhibitors in Psoriasis: A Narrative Review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2013 Nov 27.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors are an alternative to oral systemic therapies for psoriasis. Data regarding the safety of TNF-α inhibitors from randomized clinical trials may not fully reflect the effects on the clinic patient population receiving the therapy, but other sources of information are available. We performed a literature review to assess the safety and tolerability of the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis with TNF-α inhibitors. A literature search was conducted using PubMed for articles dating from January 2000 to October 2013. Randomized controlled, cohort, open-label, and observational studies were included, as well as case reports and letters to the editor. Articles found on PubMed describing the safety of anti-TNF-α therapy in psoriasis patients were included, while studies highlighting interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 inhibitors were excluded, as were non-English articles. In total, 58 articles were included in the review. TNF-α inhibitors exhibit both efficacy and tolerability in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Adverse effects associated with these medications are not common and can be minimized with routine clinical monitoring and patient education. While the risk of severe adverse events is low, the lack of very large, long-term, randomized safety trials limits the ability to fully define the safety of these agents. TNF-α inhibitors have a good efficacy/safety ratio for use in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Serious adverse effects are not common, and common injection-site reactions are usually manageable. The benefits of TNF-α inhibitors outweigh the risks for moderate-to-severe psoriasis; however, there are potential adverse effects and the patient populations at highest risk include the elderly and those with a history of malignancy.
- Effect of Treating Psoriasis on Cardiovascular Co-Morbidities: Focus on TNF Inhibitors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2013 Nov 27.
Psoriasis patients are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Literature on rheumatoid arthritis has shown the association of treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors and improvement of cardiovascular disease. Recent literature has also shown similar findings in psoriasis patients. We present a review of the literature on the effect of TNF inhibitors for psoriasis treatment on cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular biomarkers, and insulin resistance. We conclude that TNF inhibitors may be especially beneficial in preventing myocardial infarction, to a degree greater than methotrexate, especially in the Caucasian population. The effects of TNF inhibitors in altering insulin sensitivity or preventing new onset diabetes have been contradictory. Case reports of both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia developing in patients under TNF inhibitor treatment teach us to warn patients about these side effects. More robust clinical studies are needed to evaluate the true effect of TNF inhibitors in diabetic psoriasis patients. More studies are also needed to assess the effect of TNF inhibitors on hypertension, dyslipidemia, and stroke.
- Acne in Patients with Skin of Color: Practical Management. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2013 Nov 5.
Acne vulgaris is a prevalent and non-discriminatory condition affecting individuals of all races and ethnicities. As people with skin of color make up a rapidly expanding segment of the US population, dermatologic care must evolve accordingly to address their distinct concerns. Patients with skin of color with acne can be particularly challenging, given their potential for cosmetically disturbing complications, including post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and keloid development. A variety of treatments have been shown to be effective in preventing or treating these complications. Topical retinoids are considered first-line therapy for acne in patients of color; topical alternatives include azelaic acid, dapsone, and antimicrobials. Hydroquinone may be used in combating post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, specifically. For more severe acne, oral agents, including oral antibiotics or isotretinoin, may be used. Most recently, various lasers and phototherapies have been suggested for their safety and efficacy in patients with skin of color with acne. Ultimately, recognizing the clinical and histologic differences, as well as the variations in treatment regimens for darker skin types will allow for better care and patient satisfaction.
- Relationship Between Skin Diseases and Extracutaneous Complications of Diabetes Mellitus: Clinical Analysis of 750 Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2013 Oct 18.
The relationship between skin diseases and extracutaneous complications in diabetes mellitus (DM) is unclear.We aimed to investigate the relationship between skin disorders and diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy in patients with DM.A total of 750 patients with DM were prospectively enrolled. Demographic and clinical features, skin disorders, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, and presence of nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy were noted.Of the patients, 38.0 % had neuropathy, 23.3 % had nephropathy, and 22.9 % had retinopathy. Any skin disorder was present in 79.2 % (n = 594) of patients. The most common skin manifestations were cutaneous infections (47.5 %), xerosis (26.4 %), and inflammatory skin diseases (20.7 %). The frequency of cutaneous infections, fungal infections, diabetic foot, rubeosis faciei, and pigmented purpuric dermatitis was higher in patients with nephropathy than in those without nephropathy. Cutaneous infections, diabetic foot, rubeosis faciei, and diabetic dermopathy were more common in patients with neuropathy. Fungal infections, diabetic foot, rubeosis faciei, diabetic dermopathy, and pigmented purpuric dermatitis were more frequent in patients with retinopathy. Patients with HbA1c ≥8 mmol/mL had more skin disorders than those with HbA1c <8 mmol/mL (P < 0.05 for all).Skin disorders may be clues to the presence of associated microvascular complications of DM.
- Treatment of refractory chronic urticaria: current and future therapeutic options. [Journal Article]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2013 Dec; 14(6):481-8.
Chronic urticaria is a distressing disease that affects up to 1 % of the general population at a time point in life and may severely worsen the quality of life. First-line treatment has been based on antihistamines, and presently relies on the use of non-sedating, second-generation antihistamines; following the recommendations of the recent international guidelines, in patients who do not respond to antihistamines at licensed doses, the daily dosage of these drugs can be increased up to fourfold. Nonetheless, a significant proportion of patients with chronic urticaria remain poorly controlled; in these cases, alternative therapeutic approaches have to be considered. This article critically reviews all of the third- and fourth-line treatment options suggested for patients whose disease is refractory to antihistamines, including systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, several different anti-inflammatory drugs (dapsone, sulfasalazine, hydroxychloroquine), various immunosuppressive drugs (calcineurin inhibitors, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil), intravenous immunoglobulin, and newer treatment options, such as omalizumab and other biologic drugs. In addition, the article examines possible future treatment options based on recent findings about pathogenic mechanisms, and considers the treatment of antihistamine-unresponsive urticaria in special conditions such as children and pregnancy/lactation. The evidence supporting the use of several of the discussed drugs is presently limited and thus insufficient to recommend their routine use; as a consequence, such compounds should be considered only in specific cases and in adequate settings.
- Wound dressings: selecting the most appropriate type. [Journal Article]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2013 Dec; 14(6):449-59.
Appropriate wound dressing selection is guided by an understanding of wound dressing properties and an ability to match the level of drainage and depth of a wound. Wounds should be assessed for necrosis and infection, which need to be addressed prior to selecting an ideal dressing. Moisture-retentive dressings include films, hydrogels, hydrocolloids, foams, alginates, and hydrofibers and are useful in a variety of clinical settings. Antimicrobial-impregnated dressings can be useful in wounds that are superficially infected or are at higher risk for infection. For refractory wounds that need more growth stimulation, tissue-engineered dressings have become a viable option in the past few decades, especially those that have been approved for burns, venous ulcers, and diabetic ulcers. As wounds heal, the ideal dressing type may change, depending on the amount of exudate and depth of the wound; thus success in wound dressing selection hinges on recognition of the changing healing environment.
- Cutaneous Adverse Events to Type I BRAF Inhibitors: An Analysis of Effects Associated with Each Inhibitor and Therapeutic Time Interval to Onset. [Journal Article]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2013 Dec; 14(6):461-71.
The treatment of malignant melanoma with inhibitors targeting the BRAF V600E mutation has demonstrated dramatic clinical and radiographic response with improved progression-free and overall survival in the majority of patients receiving treatment. However, cutaneous adverse effects-from proliferative processes to more classic drug side effects-are increasingly being reported in patients on BRAF inhibitors. In this comprehensive literature review we provide (1) an all-inclusive list of cutaneous adverse effects associated with selective class I RAF inhibitors, (2) specific adverse effects associated with each inhibitor, and (3) the therapeutic time interval associated with the onset of all reported lesion types. Twenty-two studies reporting cutaneous adverse reactions with selective class I RAF inhibitor therapy were retrieved from PubMed and sourced from relevant articles referenced by other papers. We identified over 45 differently described lesion types, corresponding to close to 2,000 cases. The most commonly reported lesion types in order of decreasing frequency include inflammatory dermatoses, benign lesions, malignant lesions, and hair/nail-related abnormalities. For the most part, the terminologies used in the original studies were retained. Case totals and time-to-lesion onset are presented for every group, and where available, for individual lesion types, by associated BRAF inhibitor.
- Inflammatory nodules following soft tissue filler use: a review of causative agents, pathology and treatment options. [Journal Article]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2013 Oct; 14(5):401-11.
Nodule development is a common complication following the use of fillers for soft tissue augmentation and is commonly categorized as inflammatory or non-inflammatory in nature. Inflammatory nodules may appear anywhere from days to years after treatment, whereas non-inflammatory nodules are typically seen immediately following implantation and are usually secondary to improper placement of the filler. Although inflammatory nodules are more common with permanent fillers such as silicone, inflammatory nodule development following administration of temporary fillers such as hyaluronic acid and collagen has also been reported. Treated many times with corticosteroids due to their anti-inflammatory properties, inflammatory nodules may be secondary to infection or biofilm formation, warranting the use of alternative agents. Appropriate and prompt diagnosis is important in avoiding delay of treatment or long-term complications for the patient. This paper addresses the etiology, development, and studied treatment options available for inflammatory nodules secondary to each of the major classes of fillers. With this knowledge, practitioners may expeditiously recognize and manage this common side effect and thus maximize functional and aesthetic benefit.
- Lentigo maligna: review of salient characteristics and management. [Journal Article]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2013 Dec; 14(6):473-80.
Lentigo maligna is a melanocytic neoplasm, often regarded as 'melanoma in situ,' which may progress to lentigo maligna melanoma. Lentigo maligna clinically presents as a pigmented, asymmetric macule that originates on the head and neck and spreads slowly. The preferred method for diagnosing lentigo maligna is excisional biopsy. Histology shows proliferation of atypical melanocytes at the epidermal-dermal junction in small nests or single cells. The differential diagnosis includes solar lentigo, seborrheic keratosis, lichen planus-like keratosis, pigmented actinic keratosis, and melanocytic nevus. Stains used in diagnosis include hematoxylin and eosin, HMB-45, MART-1/Melan-A, Mel-5, and S-100. Surgical excision is the preferred treatment for lentigo maligna. Second-line techniques include medical (topical imiquimod) and destructive therapy.