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American journal of kidney diseases [journal]
- Knowledge and Attitudes of Canadian First Nations People Toward Organ Donation and Transplantation: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Aug 27.
Organ donation and transplantation rates are low for aboriginal people in Canada, despite a high demand.An explanatory mixed-methods design was used to describe knowledge of and preferences for organ donation and transplantation among First Nations people and identify factors that may influence these preferences.We recruited on- and off-reservation First Nations adults.A 45-item survey was administered to 198 participants, of whom 21 were assessed further with a qualitative interview using a multiple case study approach.In an iterative process, themes were identified from qualitative data using critical realism as the theoretical framework. Critical realism is an approach that describes the interface between natural and social worlds to explain human behavior.Although 83% of participants were in favor of transplantation, only 38% were willing to donate their organs after death, 44% had not thought about organ donation, and 14% did not believe it was important. Only 18.7% of participants reported that their cultural beliefs influenced their views on organ donation and transplantation. In the multivariable analysis, the only factors associated with willingness to donate organs were higher education and considering organ donation important. Four themes emerged from qualitative data: importance of traditional beliefs, recognition of need due to the epidemic of diabetes among Canadian aboriginal people, reconciliation between traditional beliefs and need, and general apathy in the community.Cultural, socioeconomic, and political diversity exist between and within aboriginal groups. Findings may not be generalizable to other aboriginal communities.Willingness to donate organs was lower in these First Nations participants compared to the general population. Education to address knowledge deficits, emphasize the negative impact of organ failure on the community, and contextualize organ donation within the older traditional native beliefs to help First Nations people understand how organ donation may be integrated into native spirituality likely is required to increase donation rates.
- Serum Bicarbonate and Bone Mineral Density in US Adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Aug 26.
Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown.Cross-sectional study.9,724 nationally representative adults 20 years or older in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 1999-2004.Serum bicarbonate level.Lumbar and total BMD, as well as low lumbar and total bone mass, defined as 1.0 SD below the sex-specific mean value of young adults.BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate was measured in all participants.Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD in the total population, as well as in sex-specific models (P=0.02 for all 3 models, P=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate level for women but not men (P=0.02 and P=0.1, respectively; P=0.8 for interaction), and a significant association was seen for postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women (P=0.02 and P=0.2, respectively; P=0.5 for interaction). Compared with women with serum bicarbonate levels <24mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate levels ≥27mEq/L had 0.018-g/cm(2) higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; P=0.01) and 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; P=0.049).Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate. Subgroup differences are not definitive.Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be incorporated into the diagnostic assessment and management of osteoporosis.
- Assessing Achievement in Nephrology Training: Using Clinic Chart Audits to Quantitatively Screen Competency. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Aug 23.
Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) are complex tasks representing vital physician functions in multiple competencies, used to demonstrate trainee development along milestones. Managing a nephrology outpatient clinic has been proposed as an EPA for nephrology fellowship training.Retrospective cohort study of nephrology fellow outpatient clinic performance using a previously validated chart audit tool.Outpatient encounter chart audits for training years 2008-2009 through 2012-2013, corresponding to participation in the Nephrology In-Training Examination (ITE). A median of 7 auditors (attending nephrologists) audited a mean of 1,686±408 (SD) charts per year. 18 fellows were audited; 12, in both of their training years.Proportion of chart audit and quality indicator deficiencies.Longitudinal deficiency and ITE performance.Among fellows audited in both their training years, chart audit deficiencies were fewer in the second versus the first year (5.4%±2.0% vs 17.3%±7.0%; P<0.001) and declined between the first and second halves of the first year (22.2%±6.4% vs 12.3%±9.5%; P=0.002). Most deficiencies were omission errors, regardless of training year. Quality indicator deficiencies for hypertension and chronic kidney disease-associated anemia recognition and management were fewer during the second year (P<0.001). Yearly audit deficiencies ≥5% were associated with an ITE score less than the 25th percentile for second-year fellows (P=0.03), with no significant association for first-year fellows. Auditor-reported deficiencies declined between the first and second halves of the year (17.0% vs 11.1%; P<0.001), with a stable positive/neutral comment rate (17.3% vs 17.8%; P=0.6), suggesting that the decline was not due to auditor fatigue.Retrospective design and small trainee numbers.Managing a nephrology outpatient clinic is an EPA. The chart audit tool was used to assess longitudinal fellow performance in managing a nephrology outpatient clinic. Failure to progress may be quantitatively identified and remediated. The tool identifies deficiencies in all 6 competencies, not just medical knowledge, the primary focus of the ITE and the nephrology subspecialty board examination.
- Dialysis Care and Death Following Hurricane Sandy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Aug 22.
Hurricane Sandy affected access to critical health care infrastructure. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) historically have experienced problems accessing care and adverse outcomes during disasters.Retrospective cohort study with 2 comparison groups.Using Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services claims data, we assessed the frequency of early dialysis, emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and 30-day mortality for patients with ESRD in Sandy-affected areas (study group) and 2 comparison groups: (1) patients with ESRD living in states unaffected by Sandy during the same period and (2) patients with ESRD living in the Sandy-affected region a year prior to the hurricane (October 1, 2011, through October 30, 2011).Regional variation in dialysis care patterns and mortality for patients with ESRD in New York City and the State of New Jersey.Frequency of early dialysis, ED visits, hospitalizations, and 30-day mortality.Of 13,264 study patients, 59% received early dialysis in 70% of the New York City and New Jersey dialysis facilities. The ED visit rate was 4.1% for the study group compared with 2.6% and 1.7%, respectively, for comparison groups 1 and 2 (both P<0.001). The hospitalization rate for the study group also was significantly higher than that in either comparison group (4.5% vs 3.2% and 3.8%, respectively; P<0.001 and P<0.003). 23% of study group patients who visited the ED received dialysis in the ED compared with 9.3% and 6.3% in comparison groups 1 and 2, respectively (both P<0.001). The 30-day mortality rate for the study group was slightly higher than that for either comparison group (1.83% vs 1.47% and 1.60%, respectively; P<0.001 and P=0.1).Lack of facility level damage and disaster-induced power outage severity data.Nearly half the study group patients received early dialysis prior to Sandy's landfall. Poststorm increases in ED visits, hospitalizations, and 30-day mortality were found in the study group, but not in the comparison groups.
- Improving Clinical Outcomes Among Hemodialysis Patients: A Proposal for a "Volume First" Approach From the Chief Medical Officers of US Dialysis Providers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Aug 21.
Addressing fluid intake and volume control requires alignment and coordination of patients, providers, dialysis facilities, and payers, potentially necessitating a "Volume First" approach. This article reports the consensus opinions achieved at the March 2013 symposium of the Chief Medical Officers of 14 of the largest dialysis providers in the United States. These opinions are based on broad experience among participants, but often reinforced by only observational and frequently retrospective studies, highlighting the lack of high-quality clinical trials in nephrology. Given the high morbidity and mortality rates among dialysis patients and the absence of sufficient trial data to guide most aspects of hemodialysis therapy, participants believed that immediate attempts to improve care based on quality improvement initiatives, physiologic principles, and clinical experiences are warranted until such time as rigorous clinical trial data become available. The following overarching consensus opinions emerged. (1) Extracellular fluid status should be a component of sufficient dialysis, such that approaching normalization of extracellular fluid volume should be a primary goal of dialysis care. (2) Fluid removal should be gradual and dialysis treatment duration should not routinely be less than 4 hours without justification based on individual patient factors. (3) Intradialytic sodium loading should be avoided by incorporating dialysate sodium concentrations set routinely in the range of 134-138 mEq/L, avoidance of routine use of sodium modeling, and avoidance of hypertonic saline solution. (4) Dietary counseling should emphasize sodium avoidance.
- Insulin-like Growth Factors and Kidney Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Aug 20.
Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 and IGF-2) are necessary for normal growth and development. They are related structurally to proinsulin and promote cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival, as well as insulin-like metabolic effects, in most cell types and tissues. In particular, IGFs are important for normal pre- and postnatal kidney development. IGF-1 mediates many growth hormone actions, and both growth hormone excess and deficiency are associated with perturbed kidney function. IGFs affect renal hemodynamics both directly and indirectly by interacting with the renin-angiotensin system. In addition to the IGF ligands, the IGF system includes receptors for IGF-1, IGF-2/mannose-6-phosphate, and insulin, and a family of 6 high-affinity IGF-binding proteins that modulate IGF action. Disordered regulation of the IGF system has been implicated in a number of kidney diseases. IGF activity is enhanced in early diabetic nephropathy and polycystic kidneys, whereas IGF resistance is found in chronic kidney failure. IGFs have a potential role in enhancing stem cell repair of kidney injury. Most IGF actions are mediated by the tyrosine kinase IGF-1 receptor, and inhibitors recently have been developed. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal role of IGF-based therapies in kidney disease.
- Association of Kidney Function and Albuminuria With Prevalent and Incident Hypertension: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Aug 20.
Decreased kidney function and kidney damage may predate hypertension, but only a few studies have investigated both types of markers simultaneously, and these studies have obtained conflicting results.Cross-sectional for prevalent and prospective observational study for incident hypertension.9,593 participants from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study, aged 53-75 years in 1996-1998.Several markers of kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate using serum creatinine and/or cystatin C and 2 novel markers [β-trace protein and β2-microglobulin]) and 1 marker of kidney damage (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio [ACR]). Every kidney marker was categorized by its quintiles (top quintile as a reference for estimated glomerular filtration rates and bottom quintile for the rest).Prevalent and incident hypertension.Prevalence ratios and HRs of hypertension based on modified Poisson regression and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively.There were 4,378 participants (45.6%) with prevalent hypertension at baseline and 2,175 incident hypertension cases during a median follow-up of 9.8 years. Although all 5 kidney function markers were associated significantly with prevalent hypertension, prevalent hypertension was associated most notably with higher ACR (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.50-1.71] for the highest vs lowest ACR quintile). Similarly, ACR was associated consistently with incident hypertension in all models tested (adjusted HR, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.10-1.49] for top quintile), while kidney function markers demonstrated significant associations in some, but not all, models. Even mildly increased ACR (9.14-14.0mg/g) was associated significantly with incident hypertension.Self-reported use of antihypertensive medication for defining incident hypertension, single assessment of kidney markers, and relatively narrow age range.Although all kidney markers were associated with prevalent hypertension, only elevated albuminuria was associated consistently with incident hypertension, suggesting that kidney damage is related more closely to hypertension than moderate reduction in overall kidney function.
- Practice-Based Versus Patient-Level Outcomes Research in Hemodialysis: The DOPPS (Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study) Experience. [REVIEW]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Aug 20.
When randomized controlled trials are unavailable, clinicians have to rely on observational studies. However, analyses using observational data to evaluate specific treatments and their associations with outcomes often are biased through confounding by clinical indication for the treatment of interest. Given the rich observational data and limited clinical trial data available in the dialysis population, successfully accounting for this bias can lead to substantial knowledge generation. In recent decades, much has been learned about statistical methods for observational data, including the fact that even extensive adjustments may not always overcome this bias, particularly when unmeasured confounders exist. In this article, examples based on the international DOPPS (Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study) are used to demonstrate the value of practice-based instrumental variable analyses. This methodology leverages the marked differences in practice patterns among dialysis facilities and uses the reasonable assumption that patients are assigned to a dialysis facility without consideration of its specific treatment pattern in order to minimize bias in analyses relying on observational data. Examples using the dialysis facility as an instrument that are reviewed in depth in this article include studies of dialysate sodium concentration, systolic blood pressure targets, and treatment time, demonstrate the value of this methodology to produce advanced knowledge. However, practice-based analyses have potential limitations. Specifically, observation of sufficiently large differences in practice patterns is required and these analyses should consider that the treatment of interest may be associated with other facility treatment practices. These examples from the DOPPS hopefully will stimulate advances in methodologies and critical clinical work toward improving patient care by identifying beneficial treatment practices applicable to dialysis, chronic kidney disease, and beyond.
- Quiz page september 2014: progressive liver failure following kidney transplantation. [Journal Article]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Sep; 64(3):A19-22.
- A signature. [Editorial]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Sep; 64(3):A17-8.