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American journal of kidney diseases [journal]
- Risk Factors for Pregnancy Outcomes in Patients With IgA Nephropathy: A Matched Cohort Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Aug 15.
The outcomes of pregnancy in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) are uncertain. This study assessed the effects of pregnancy on kidney disease progression and risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in IgAN.A matched-cohort study.Women with IgAN with at least one pregnancy, 1 year of follow-up, and kidney function and proteinuria measurement at baseline (time of biopsy) matched with nonpregnant women with IgAN from Peking University First Hospital.Pregnancy, treated as a time-dependent variable; proteinuria; hypertension; and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).Kidney disease progression, defined as eGFR halving or end-stage kidney disease; rate of eGFR decline; and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including severe pre-eclampsia, intrauterine death, embryo damage, fetal malformation, and induced and spontaneous abortions.Of 239 female patients, 62 women had 69 pregnancies and 62 matched nonpregnant patients were selected as controls. Pregnant patients had median proteinuria at baseline with protein excretion of 1.27 (range, 0.06-7.25)g/d and mean eGFR of 102.3 (range, 40.0-139.0)mL/min/1.73m(2). During a mean follow-up of 45.7 months, 4 patients in the pregnancy group and 6 in the nonpregnancy group had kidney disease progression events. Time-dependent Cox analysis showed that pregnancy was not an independent risk factor for kidney disease progression events (HR, 1.2; 95%CI, 0.3-5.7). There was no significant difference in the median rate of eGFR decline in the 2 groups (-2.5 vs -2.4mL/min/1.73m(2) per year; P=0.7). Adverse pregnancy outcomes were observed in 15 patients. Proteinuria during pregnancy (OR, 1.39; 95%CI, 0.96-2.01) was a borderline predictor of adverse pregnancy outcomes.Retrospective study, most patients had preserved kidney function, study underpowered to detect a difference in kidney failure events.The study does not permit a definitive conclusion about the effect of pregnancy on kidney disease progression in IgAN.
- ESRD From Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease in the United States, 2001-2010. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Aug 15.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is amenable to early detection and specialty care. Thus, while important to patients with the condition, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from ADPKD also may be an indicator of the overall state of nephrology care.Retrospective cohort study of temporal trends in ESRD from ADPKD and pre-renal replacement therapy (RRT) nephrologist care, 2001-2010 (n=23,772).US patients who initiated maintenance RRT from 2001 through 2010 (n=1,069,343) from US Renal Data System data.ESRD from ADPKD versus from other causes for baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes; interval 2001-2005 versus 2006-2010 for comparisons of cohort of patients with ESRD from ADPKD.Death, wait-listing for kidney transplant, kidney transplantation.US census data were used as population denominators. Poisson distribution was used to compute incidence rates (IRs). Incidence ratios were standardized to rates in 2001-2002 for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Patients with and without ADPKD were matched to compare clinical outcomes. Poisson regression was used to calculate IRs and adjusted HRs for clinical events after inception of RRT.General population incidence ratios in 2009-2010 were unchanged from 2001-2002 (incidence ratio, 1.02). Of patients with ADPKD, 48.1% received more than 12 months of nephrology care before RRT; preemptive transplantation was the initial RRT in 14.3% and fistula was the initial hemodialysis access in 35.8%. During 4.9 years of follow-up, patients with ADPKD were more likely to be listed for transplantation (IR, 11.7 [95% CI, 11.5-12.0] vs 8.4 [95% CI, 8.2-8.7] per 100 person-years) and to undergo transplantation (IR, 9.8 [95% CI, 9.5-10.0] vs 4.8 [95% CI, 4.7-5.0] per 100 person-years) and less likely to die (IR, 5.6 [95% CI, 5.4-5.7] vs 15.5 [95% CI, 15.3-15.8] per 100 person-years) than matched controls without ADPKD.Retrospective nonexperimental registry-based study of associations; cause-and-effect relationships cannot be determined.Although outcomes on dialysis therapy are better for patients with ADPKD than for those without ADPKD, access to predialysis nephrology care and nondeclining ESRD rates may be a cause for concern.
- Use of Anion Gap in the Evaluation of a Patient With Metabolic Acidosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Aug 15.
High anion gap (AG) metabolic acidosis, a common laboratory abnormality encountered in clinical practice, frequently is due to accumulation of organic acids such as lactic acid, keto acids, alcohol metabolites, and reduced kidney function. The cause of high AG metabolic acidosis often is established easily using historical and simple laboratory data. Despite this, several challenges in the diagnosis and management of high AG metabolic acidosis remain, including quantifying the increase in AG, understanding the relationship between changes in AG and serum bicarbonate level, and identifying the cause of high AG metabolic acidosis when common causes are ruled out. The present case was selected to highlight the importance of the correction of AG for serum albumin level, the use of actual baseline AG rather than mean normal AG, the relationship between changes in serum bicarbonate level and AG, and a systematic diagnostic approach to uncommon causes of high AG metabolic acidosis, such as 5-oxoproline acidosis (pyroglutamic acidosis).
- Predictors in Adolescence of ESRD in Middle-Aged Men. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Aug 12.
Identification of predictors of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in adolescence could provide intervention targets and improve understanding of the cause.Register-based nested case-control study.A cohort of all Swedish male residents born from 1952 through 1956 who attended mandatory military conscription examinations in late adolescence was used to identify 534 cases and 5,127 controls matched by birth year, county, and vital status.Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), proteinuria, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI) in late adolescence.ESRD (defined here as dialysis therapy, kidney transplantation, surgical procedures creating long-term access for dialysis therapy, or chronic kidney disease stage 5) from 1985 through 2009.Physical working capacity and cognitive function score in late adolescence. Head of household's occupation and household crowding measured as person-per-room ratio from the 1960 census when participants were children.Proteinuria is associated notably with future ESRD, with an adjusted OR of 7.72 (95% CI, 3.94-15.14; P<0.001) for trace or positive dipstick findings. ESR has a dose-dependent association with ESRD with an adjusted OR of 2.07 (95%CI, 1.14-3.75; P=0.02) for ESR >15mm/h. Hypertension is associated strongly with future ESRD with an OR of 3.97 (95%CI, 2.08-7.59; P<0.001) for grade 2 hypertension and higher. Elevated BMI is associated statistically significantly with increased ESRD risk with an OR of 3.53 (95%CI, 2.04-6.11; P<0.001) for BMI ≥30 compared with 18.5-<25kg/m(2).The study was limited to men, with no initial estimation of glomerular filtration rate, and information on smoking was unavailable.ESR, proteinuria, BMI, and blood pressure in late adolescence are independent predictors of ESRD in middle-aged men. This highlights the long natural history and importance of adopting a life-course approach when considering the cause of chronic kidney disease.
- Patients' Perspectives on Hemodialysis Vascular Access: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Aug 9.
Delayed creation of vascular access may be due in part to patient refusal and is associated with adverse outcomes. Concerns about vascular access are prevailing treatment-related stressors for patients on hemodialysis therapy. This study aims to describe patients' perspectives on vascular access initiation and maintenance in hemodialysis.Systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.Patients with chronic kidney disease who express opinions about vascular access for hemodialysis.MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, reference lists, and PhD dissertations were searched to October 2013.Thematic synthesis was used to analyze the findings.From 46 studies involving 1,034 patients, we identified 6 themes: heightened vulnerability (bodily intrusion, fear of cannulation, threat of complications and failure, unpreparedness, dependence on a lifeline, and wary of unfamiliar providers), disfigurement (preserving normal appearance, visual reminder of disease, and avoiding stigma), mechanization of the body (bonded to a machine, internal abnormality, and constant maintenance), impinging on way of life (physical incapacitation, instigating family tension, wasting time, and added expense), self-preservation and ownership (task-focused control, advocating for protection, and acceptance), and confronting decisions and consequences (imminence of dialysis therapy and existential thoughts).Non-English articles were excluded.Vascular access is more than a surgical intervention. Initiation of vascular access signifies kidney failure and imminent dialysis, which is emotionally confronting. Patients strive to preserve their vascular access for survival, but at the same time describe it as an agonizing reminder of their body's failings and "abnormality" of being amalgamated with a machine disrupting their identity and lifestyle. Timely education and counseling about vascular access and building patients' trust in health care providers may improve the quality of dialysis and lead to better outcomes for patients with chronic kidney disease requiring hemodialysis.
- A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Pentoxifylline on Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Hyporesponsiveness in Anemic Patients With CKD: The Handling Erythropoietin Resistance With Oxpentifylline (HERO) Trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Aug 9.
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA)-hyporesponsive anemia is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Pentoxifylline shows promise as a treatment for ESA-hyporesponsive anemia, but has not been rigorously evaluated.Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.53 adult patients with CKD stage 4 or 5 (including dialysis) and ESA-hyporesponsive anemia (hemoglobin≤120g/L and ESA resistance index [calculated as weight-adjusted weekly ESA dose in IU/kg/wk divided by hemoglobin concentration in g/L]≥1.0IU/kg/wk/g/L for erythropoietin-treated patients and ≥0.005μg/kg/wk/g/L for darbepoetin-treated patients).Pentoxifylline (400mg/d; n=26) or matching placebo (control; n=27) for 4 months.Primary outcome: ESA resistance index at 4 months; secondary outcomes: hemoglobin concentration, ESA dose, blood transfusion requirement, serum ferritin level and transferrin saturation, C-reactive protein level, adverse events, quality of life, and health economics.There was no statistically significant difference in ESA resistance index between the pentoxifylline and control groups (adjusted mean difference, -0.39 [95%CI, -0.89 to 0.10] IU/kg/wk/g/L; P=0.1). Pentoxifylline significantly increased hemoglobin concentration relative to the control group (adjusted mean difference, 7.6 [95%CI, 1.7-13.5] g/L; P=0.01). There was no difference in ESA dose between groups (-20.8 [95%CI, -67.2 to 25.7] IU/kg/wk; P=0.4). No differences in blood transfusion requirements, adverse events, or quality of life were observed between groups. Pentoxifylline cost A$88.05 (US $82.94) per person over the trial and produced mean savings in ESA cost of A$1,332 (US $1,255). The overall economic impact over the trial period was a saving of A$1,244 (US $1,172) per person for the pentoxifylline group compared with controls.Sample size smaller than planned due to slow recruitment.Pentoxifylline did not significantly modify ESA hyporesponsiveness, but increased hemoglobin concentration. Further studies are warranted to determine whether pentoxifylline therapy represents a safe strategy for increasing hemoglobin levels in patients with CKD with ESA-hyporesponsive anemia.
- Buttonhole Versus Rope-Ladder Cannulation of Arteriovenous Fistulas for Hemodialysis: A Systematic Review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Aug 7.
The buttonhole technique is an alternative method of cannulating the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in hemodialysis (HD), frequently used for home HD patients. However, the balance of risks and benefits of the buttonhole compared with the rope-ladder technique is uncertain.A systematic review of randomized trials and observational studies (case reports, case series, studies without a control group, non-English studies, and abstracts were excluded).HD patients (both in-center conventional HD and home HD) using an AVF for vascular access.We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, and CINAHL from the earliest date in the databases to March 2014 for studies comparing clinical outcomes of the buttonhole versus rope-ladder technique.Buttonhole versus rope-ladder cannulation technique.The primary outcomes of interest were patient-reported cannulation pain and rates of AVF-related local and systemic infections. Secondary outcomes included access survival, intervention, hospitalization, and mortality, as well as hematoma and aneurysm formation, time to hemostasis, and all-cause hospitalization and mortality.Of 1,044 identified citations, 23 studies were selected for inclusion. There was equivocal evidence with respect to cannulation pain: pooled observational studies yielded a statistical reduction in pain with buttonhole cannulation (standardized mean difference, -0.76 [95%CI, -1.38 to -0.15] standard deviations), but no difference in cannulation pain was found among randomized controlled trials (standardized mean difference, 0.34 [95%CI, -0.76 to 1.43] standard deviations). Buttonhole, as compared to rope-ladder, technique appeared to be associated with increased risk of local and systemic infections.Overall poor quality and substantial heterogeneity among studies precluded pooling of most outcomes.Evidence does not support the preferential use of buttonhole over rope-ladder cannulation in either facility-based conventional HD or home HD. This does not preclude buttonhole cannulation as being appropriate for some patients with difficult-to-access AVFs.
- Hospitalization in Daily Home Hemodialysis and Matched Thrice-Weekly In-Center Hemodialysis Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Jul 29.
Cardiovascular disease is a common cause of hospitalization in dialysis patients. Daily hemodialysis improves some parameters of cardiovascular function, but whether it associates with lower hospitalization risk is unclear.Observational cohort study using US Renal Data System data.Medicare-enrolled daily (5 or 6 sessions weekly) home hemodialysis (HHD) patients initiating NxStage System One use from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2009, and contemporary thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis patients, matched 5 to 1.Daily HHD or thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis.All-cause and cause-specific hospital admissions, hospital readmissions, and hospital days assessed from Medicare Part A claims.For 3,480 daily HHD and 17,400 thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis patients in intention-to-treat analysis, the HR of all-cause admission for daily HHD versus in-center hemodialysis was 1.01 (95%CI, 0.98-1.03). Cause-specific admission HRs were 0.89 (95%CI, 0.86-0.93) for cardiovascular disease, 1.18 (95%CI, 1.13-1.23) for infection, 1.01 (95%CI, 0.93-1.09) for vascular access dysfunction, and 1.02 (95%CI, 0.99-1.06) for other morbidity. Regarding cardiovascular disease, first admission and readmission HRs for daily HHD versus in-center hemodialysis were 0.91 and 0.87, respectively. Regarding infection, first admission and readmission HRs were 1.35 and 1.03, respectively. Protective associations of daily HHD with heart failure and hypertensive disease were most pronounced, as were adverse associations of daily HHD with bacteremia/sepsis, cardiac infection, osteomyelitis, and vascular access infection.Results may be confounded by unmeasured factors, including vascular access type; information about dialysis frequency, duration, and dose was lacking; causes of admission may be misclassified; results may not apply to patients without Medicare coverage.All-cause hospitalization risk was similar in daily HHD and thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis patients. However, risk of cardiovascular-related admission was lower with daily HHD, and risk of infection-related admission was higher. More attention should be afforded to infection in HHD patients.
- Gastric Bypass Surgery and Measured and Estimated GFR in Women. [LETTER]
- Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Jul 29.