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Anestezjologia intensywna terapia [journal]
- Intensive care of conjoined twins. [Journal Article]
- Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2014 Apr-Jun; 46(2):130-6.
Conjoined twinning is one of the most uncommon congenital anomalies. Maintenance in an intensive care setting during this time allows for close monitoring, stabilisation, and nutritional supplementation of the infants as necessary to optimise preoperative growth and development. The birth of conjoined twins is a very difficult and dramatic moment for parents. It is also a very difficult situation for the team of physicians, nurses and other required hospital staff to carry out treatment and care of these specific developmental anomalies. The diagnostics and treatment in this extraordinary situation requires close cooperation of the multidisciplinary medical team, which includes their personal experience and medical knowledge, with a team of intensive care unit nurses. This report presents the rules in cease of conjoined twins during their intensive care unit stay with special reference to the proceedings before and after complete separation.
- Anaesthesia of conjoined twins. [Journal Article]
- Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2014 Apr-Jun; 46(2):124-9.
Conjoined twins have been a source of fascination to the public and the medical profession for centuries. Their birth was initially viewed as an ominous sign of impending disaster. Since Middle Ages into the 19th century they were regarded as monstrosities and were exhibited at circuses and sideshows. The frequency of conjoined twins is approximately 1 in 50,000 gestation, but many of them die in utero, are terminated or stillborn. The true incidence is estimated to be 1 in 200,000 live births. This article gives an overview of Siamese twins and of the prenatal diagnosis in assessing the prognosis, anaesthetic and post-natal surgical management and outcome. Anaesthesia for conjoined twins surgery, whether prior to or for separation, is an enormous challenge to the anaesthesiologist. The site and complexity of the conjunction affect management of the airway, an intravenous access, the extent of blood and number of surgical specialties involved. Preoperative assessment and planning with interdisciplinary communication and cooperation is vital to the success of the operations. Meticulous attention to detail, monitoring and vigilance are mandatory.
- History of treatment of conjoined twins. [Journal Article]
- Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2014 Apr-Jun; 46(2):116-23.
This paper presents a history of the treatment of conjoined twins. The first mention of this malformation comes from the Neolithic period. Conjoined twins were depicted in mythologies of ancient peoples. The present paper focuses on the theories of formation of Siamese twins and attempts at their separation. Moreover, the history of treatment of conjoined twins in Poland is described.
- Procedural sedation and analgesia for gastrointestinal endoscopy in infants and children: how, with what, and by whom? [Journal Article]
- Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2014 Apr-Jun; 46(2):109-15.
Endoscopic procedures involving the gastrointestinal tract have been successfully developed in paediatric practice over the last two decades, improving both diagnosis and treatment in many children's gastrointestinal diseases. In this group of patients, experience and co-operation between paediatricians/endoscopists and paediatric anaesthesiologists should help to guarantee the quality and safety of a procedure and should additionally help to minimise the risk of adverse events which are greater the smaller the child is. This principle is more and more important especially since the announcement of the Helsinki Declaration on Patient Safety in Anaesthesiology in 2010, emphasising the role of anaesthesiology in promoting safe perioperative care. The Helsinki Declaration has been endorsed by all European anaesthesiology institutions as well as the World Health Organisation's 'Safe Surgery Saves Lives' initiative including the 'Surgical Safety Checklist'. Although most of these procedures could be performed by paediatricians under procedural sedation and analgesia, children with congenital defects and serious coexisting diseases (ASA ≥ III) as well as the usage of anaesthetics (e.g. propofol) must be managed by paediatric anaesthesiologists. We have reviewed the specific principles employed during qualification and performance of procedural sedation and analgesia for gastrointestinal endoscopy in paediatrics. We have also tried to answer the questions as to how, with what, and by whom, procedural sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy in children should be performed.
- Do we really know the pharmacodynamics of anaesthetics used in new-borns, infants and children? A review of the experimental and clinical data on neurodegeneration. [Journal Article]
- Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2014 Apr-Jun; 46(2):101-8.
The practices of anaesthesiology and intensive therapy are difficult to imagine without sedation or general anaesthesia, regardless of whether the patient is a new-born, baby, child or adult. The relevant concerns for children are distinct from those for adults, primarily due to the effects of anatomical, physiological and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) differences, which become increasingly important in the brains of children as they develop. The process of central nervous system maturation in humans lasts for years, but its greatest activity (myelination and dynoptogenesis) occurs during the foetal period and the first two years of life. Many experimental studies have demonstrated that exposure to anaesthetic drugs during this period can induce neurodegenerative changes in the central nervous systems of animals. The extrapolation of these results directly to humans must be performed with great caution, but anaesthesiologists around the world must begin to debate the safety of general anaesthesia in humans. Prospective trials should continue being carried out, and anaesthesia and surgery, delayed if possible among the smallest patients. The simultaneous use of different anaesthetics with the same potential neurotox.
- Methods to prevent intraoperative hypothermia. [Journal Article]
- Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2014 Apr-Jun; 46(2):96-100.
Inadverent intraoperative hypothermia is the most common perioperative complication that can affect the postoperative course. The development of hypothermia has been associated with higher incidence rates of infectious complications, increased requirements for blood preparations and clotting disturbances. Routine perioperative management does not involve the use of active methods for the prevention of hypothermia. The aim of the present paper is to describe the factors likely to increase the risk of hypothermia and the methods of its prevention.
- Efficacy of plasma exchange in septic shock: a case report. [Journal Article]
- Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2014 Apr-Jun; 46(2):92-5.
The mortality rate for severe sepsis and septic shock remains high. Additionally, this life-threatening state poses serious difficulties for the treatment of patients. Unfortunately, the mechanism of sepsis is complex and not well understood. In this paper, we present the case of a 2.5-year-old female with septic shock treated with plasma exchange (PE) as a nonstandard therapy. We analysed the medical history of disease, including patient data, physical examination, laboratory tests and treatment. Unexpectedly, we achieved clinical improvement after the first PE. During PE, the dose of catecholamine was reduced. In addition, the level of C-reactive protein seemed to be a better predictor of the efficacy of PE in septic shock compared to procalcitonin. We conclude that PE may improve the survival rate for patients with septic shock. These data could be useful in the search and introduction of new or alternative methods of treatment for critically ill children.
- Two cases of the "cannot ventilate, cannot intubate" scenario in children in view of recent recommendations. [Journal Article]
- Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2014 Apr-Jun; 46(2):88-91.
We present two cases of a "cannot ventilate, cannot intubate" scenario in children in view of the latest guidelines for the management of unexpectedly difficult paediatric airways. Case 1 was a 5-year-old boy with Treacher-Collins syndrome who suffered gastric rupture due to gastric distension with oxygen during attempts to maintain oxygenation at the induction of anaesthesia. Difficulties in maintaining this patient's airways should be attributed to functional rather than anatomical obstruction, because no such problem occurred during subsequent anaesthetic inductions; therefore muscle relaxation would be helpful in this situation. In case 2, vecuronium was used in a 10-month-old infant scheduled for elective laryngoscopy because of stride due to vocal cord paralysis. Because of congenital maxillo-facial malformation, the infant could not be intubated, and ventilation via a face mask became difficult. Facing rapid deterioration of oxygenation, neuromuscular block was reversed with the use of sugammadex. The recovery of spontaneous respiration was almost immediate, and normal motor function returned within 90 s. Functional airway obstruction due to laryngospasm, insufficient depth of anaesthesia, or opioid-induced muscle rigidity with glottic closure can occur in a healthy child, as well as in a child with difficult airways, and requires clear concepts and therapeutic algorithms. Recent paediatric guidelines for the management of unexpectedly difficult airways stress the role of muscle relaxants in overcoming functional airway obstruction. The possibility of reversing neuromuscular block produced by rocuronium or vecuronium with sugammadex to awaken the patient adds to the safety of this algorithm.
- Incidence, characteristics and management of pain in one operational area of medical emergency teams. [Journal Article]
- Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2014 Apr-Jun; 46(2):83-7.
Experience of pain associated with both chronic as well as acute medical conditions is a main cause for call for ambulance. The aim of this study was to establish both frequency and characteristics of pain reported by patients treated in pre-hospital environment in a single operational area. The supplementary goal was an analysis of methods of pain alleviation applied by medical personnel in the above described scenario.The written documentation of 6 months of year 2009 provided by doctor-manned as well as paramedic-only ambulances operating in Tatra county, Małopolska, Poland was analyzed.Medical personnel inquired about pain experienced in 57.4% of cases, 10-point numerical rating scale was used in 22.3% of patients. Pain was reported by 43.8% of patients, the most frequent reasons of experienced pain were trauma and cardiovascular diseases. In almost half of the cases pain was referred to the areas of chest and abdomen. Non-traumatic pain was reported by 47.7% of patients, post-traumatic in 41.3% of cases, 11% of subjects reported ischemic chest pain. 42.3% of pain-reporting patients received some form of analgesia, yet only 3% of subjects in this group received opiates. Personnel of paramedic-only ambulances tended to use pain intensity scale more often (P < 0.01), yet administered pain alleviating drugs noticeably less often than the doctor-manned teams (P < 0.01).The use of pain alleviating drugs, opiates especially, was inadequate in proportion to frequency and intensity of pain reported by patients. General, nation-wide standards of pain measurement and treatment in pre-hospital rescue are suggested as a means to improve the efficacy of pain reduction treatment.
- Changes of procalcitonin level in multiple trauma patients. [Journal Article]
- Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2014 Apr-Jun; 46(2):78-82.
Some aspects of the pathophysiology of complications in multiple-trauma patients still remain unclear. Mediators of inflammation have been postulated as playing a key role in being responsible for life threatening complications of multiple trauma patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of procalcitonin (PCT) level in multiple trauma patients.A prospective study took place including patients with multiple trauma hospitalised in several hospital units. PCT level was measured in blood from 45 patients, aged 18-70 years using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The patients were divided into three groups: group I - individuals with multiple trauma with central nervous system injury; group II - those with multiple trauma without CNS injury; and group III - patients with isolated central nervous system injury.Initial PCT levels were below 0.5 ng mL⁻¹ regardless of the cause of trauma. In the 24th hour of observation, a statistically significant increase of PCT concentration vs. initial levels was recorded in all groups of patients. Then PCT levels decreased significantly at the 3rd measurement point in all groups, and they remained unchanged until the last measurement. The highest levels of PCT were observed in multiple trauma patients without CNS injury (group II). In this group of patients, a significantly longer duration of surgery in the post-trauma period affected PCT levels. PCT concentrations in patients who died were significantly greater than in survivors.A long lasting elevated concentration of procalcitonin in the post-traumatic period, or its repeated increase, is a good marker of developing complications observed earlier than clinical manifestations.