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Ann N Y Acad Sci [journal]
- Issue information. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Aug; 1322(1):i.
- Contending with uncertainty in conservation management decisions. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Aug; 1322(1):77-91.
Efficient conservation management is particularly important because current spending is estimated to be insufficient to conserve the world's biodiversity. However, efficient management is confounded by uncertainty that pervades conservation management decisions. Uncertainties exist in objectives, dynamics of systems, the set of management options available, the influence of these management options, and the constraints on these options. Probabilistic and nonprobabilistic quantitative methods can help contend with these uncertainties. The vast majority of these account for known epistemic uncertainties, with methods optimizing the expected performance or finding solutions that achieve minimum performance requirements. Ignorance and indeterminacy continue to confound environmental management problems. While quantitative methods to account for uncertainty must aid decisions if the underlying models are sufficient approximations of reality, whether such models are sufficiently accurate has not yet been examined.
- Stability and retention of micronutrients in fortified rice prepared using different cooking methods. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Aug 18.
Fortified rice holds great potential for bringing essential micronutrients to a large part of the world population. However, it is unknown whether differences in cooking methods or in production of rice premix affect the final amount of micronutrient consumed. This paper presents a study that quantified the losses of five different micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin B12) in fortified rice that was produced using three different techniques (hot extrusion, cold extrusion, and coating) during cooking and five different cooking methods (absorption method with or without soaking, washing before cooking, cooking in excess water, and frying rice before cooking). Fortified rice premix from six different producers (two for each technique) was mixed with normal rice in a 1:100 ratio. Each sample was prepared in triplicate, using the five different cooking methods, and retention of iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B12, and folic acid was determined. It was found that the overall retention of iron, zinc, vitamin B12, and folic acid was between 75% and 100% and was unaffected by cooking method, while the retention of vitamin A was significantly affected by cooking method, with retention ranging from 0% (excess water) to 80% (soaking), depending on the cooking method and producer of the rice premix. No systematic differences between the different production methods were observed. We conclude that different cooking methods of rice as used in different regions of the world do not lead to a major loss of most micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin A. The factors involved in protecting vitamin A against losses during cooking need to be identified. All production techniques of rice premix yielded similar results, showing that coating is not inferior to extrusion techniques. Standard overages (50%) for vitamin B12 and folic acid are too high.
- Antibody-drug conjugates: an emerging modality for the treatment of cancer. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Aug; 1321(1):41-54.
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) offer promise as a therapeutic modality that can potentially reduce the toxicities and poor therapeutic indices caused by the lack of specificity of conventional anticancer therapies. ADCs combine the potency of cytotoxic agents with the target selectivity of antibodies by chemically linking a cytotoxic payload to an antibody, potentially creating a synthetic molecule that will deliver targeted antitumor therapy that is both safe and efficacious. The ADC repertoire contains a range of payload molecules, antibodies, and linkers. Two ADC molecules, Kadcyla® and Adcetris®, have been approved by the FDA, and many more are currently in clinical development.
- Clinical and economic outcomes of nutrition interventions across the continuum of care. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Aug; 1321(1):20-40.
Optimal nutrition across the continuum of care plays a key role in the short- and long-term clinical and economic outcomes of patients. Worldwide, an estimated one-quarter to one-half of patients admitted to hospitals each year are malnourished. Malnutrition can increase healthcare costs by delaying patient recovery and rehabilitation and increasing the risk of medical complications. Nutrition interventions have the potential to provide cost-effective preventive care and treatment measures. However, limited data exist on the economics and impact evaluations of these interventions. In this report, nutrition and health system researchers, clinicians, economists, and policymakers discuss emerging global research on nutrition health economics, the role of nutrition interventions across the continuum of care, and how nutrition can affect healthcare costs in the context of hospital malnutrition.
- Production and supply of high-quality food protein for human consumption: sustainability, challenges, and innovations. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Aug; 1321(1):1-19.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 843 million people worldwide are hungry and a greater number suffer from nutrient deficiencies. Approximately one billion people have inadequate protein intake. The challenge of preventing hunger and malnutrition will become even greater as the global population grows from the current 7.2 billion people to 9.6 billion by 2050. With increases in income, population, and demand for more nutrient-dense foods, global meat production is projected to increase by 206 million tons per year during the next 35 years. These changes in population and dietary practices have led to a tremendous rise in the demand for food protein, especially animal-source protein. Consuming the required amounts of protein is fundamental to human growth and health. Protein needs can be met through intakes of animal and plant-source foods. Increased consumption of food proteins is associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions and overutilization of water. Consequently, concerns exist regarding impacts of agricultural production, processing and distribution of food protein on the environment, ecosystem, and sustainability. To address these challenging issues, the New York Academy of Sciences organized the conference "Frontiers in Agricultural Sustainability: Studying the Protein Supply Chain to Improve Dietary Quality" to explore sustainable innovations in food science and programming aimed at producing the required quality and quantity of protein through improved supply chains worldwide. This report provides an extensive discussion of these issues and summaries of the presentations from the conference.
- The importance of dietary protein for muscle health in inactive, hospitalized older adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Aug 12.
Dietary protein and amino acids are necessary for overall human health. Insufficient protein intake induces a negative protein balance with adverse outcomes such as muscle atrophy and functional decline-outcomes that are worsened in older adults. Furthermore, during inactivity, such as bed rest/hospitalization, skeletal muscle protein synthesis is reduced, protein balance is negative, and older adults lose significant amounts of muscle. Dietary protein and amino acid supplementation (∼30 g protein and ∼3 g leucine) stimulate skeletal muscle protein anabolism in healthy, community-dwelling older adults and may be considered as possible nutritional interventions to improve the muscle protein balance and potentially support skeletal muscle maintenance in hospitalized older adults. The following is a timely review of metabolic and dietary challenges faced by hospitalized older adults and potential dietary protein and amino acids solutions for maintaining skeletal muscle health during hospitalization-induced inactivity in this population.
- Whole-of-society approach for public health policymaking: a case study of polycentric governance from Quebec, Canada. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Aug 12.
In adopting a whole-of-society (WoS) approach that engages multiple stakeholders in public health policies across contexts, the authors propose that effective governance presents a challenge. The purpose of this paper is to highlight a case for how polycentric governance underlying the WoS approach is already functioning, while outlining an agenda to enable adaptive learning for improving such governance processes. Drawing upon a case study from Quebec, Canada, we employ empirically developed concepts from extensive, decades-long work of the 2009 Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom in the governance of policy in nonhealth domains to analyze early efforts at polycentric governance in policies around overnutrition, highlighting interactions between international, domestic, state and nonstate actors and processes. Using information from primary and secondary sources, we analyze the emergence of the broader policy context of Quebec's public health system in the 20th century. We present a microsituational analysis of the WoS approach for Quebec's 21st century policies on healthy lifestyles, emphasizing the role of governance at the community level. We argue for rethinking prescriptive policy analysis of the 20th century, proposing an agenda for diagnostic policy analysis, which explicates the multiple sets of actors and interacting variables shaping polycentric governance for operationalizing the WoS approach to policymaking in specific contexts.
- Follicle stimulating hormone receptor in mesenchymal stem cells integrates effects of glycoprotein reproductive hormones. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Aug 12.
Previously we reported that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) affects bone degradation in human cells and in follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSH-R) null mice. Here we describe a FSH-R knockout bone-formation phenotype. We used mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), osteoblast precursors that express FSH-R, to determine whether FSH regulates bone formation. FSH stimulates MSC cell adhesion 1-3 h and proliferation at 24 h after addition. On the basis of phylogenetic and clinical precedents, we also examined effects of pregnant levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on MSCs. We found effects similar to those of FSH, and RNAi knockdown of FSH-R abrogated both FSH and hCG effects on MSCs. In contrast to effects on MSCs, neither FSH nor hCG had significant effects on osteoblast maturation. Also in MSCs, short-term treatment by FSH and hCG altered signaling pathways for proliferation, including Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Our results show augmentation of MSC proliferation by either FSH at menopausal levels or hCG at normal pregnant levels. We conclude that FSH-R participates in regulation of MSC precursor pools in response to either FSH or hCG, integrating the effects of these two glycoprotein hormones.
- An evolving perspective about the origins of childhood undernutrition and nutritional interventions that includes the gut microbiome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Aug 12.
The Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science and the World Health Organization (WHO) have worked together to formulate a research agenda for nutrition science. Undernutrition of children has profound effects on health, development, and achievement of full human capacity. Undernutrition is not simply caused by a lack of food, but results from a complex interplay of intra- and intergenerational factors. Representative preclinical models and comprehensive well-controlled longitudinal clinical studies are needed to further understand the contributions and the interrelationships among these factors and to develop interventions that are effective and durable. This paper summarizes work on mechanisms underlying the varied manifestations of childhood undernutrition and discusses current gaps in knowledge and challenges to our understanding of undernutrition and infection/immunity throughout the human life cycle, focusing on early childhood growth. It proposes a series of basic and clinical studies to address this global health challenge.