Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Ann N Y Acad Sci [journal]
- Therapeutic strategies in Parkinson's disease: what we have learned from animal models. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Dec 16.
Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, as well as in other brain areas. The currently available dopamine replacement therapy provides merely symptomatic benefit and is ineffective because habituation and side effects arise relatively quickly. Studying the genetic forms of PD in animal models provides novel insight that allows targeting of specific aspects of this heterogenic disease more specifically. Among others, two important cellular deficits are associated with PD; these deficits relate to (1) synaptic transmission and vesicle trafficking, and (2) mitochondrial function, relating respectively to the dominant and recessive mutations in PD-causing genes. With increased knowledge of PD, the possibility of identifying an efficient, long-lasting treatment is becoming more conceivable, but this can only be done with an increased knowledge of the specific affected cellular mechanisms. This review discusses how discoveries in animal models of PD have clarified the therapeutic potential of pathways disrupted in PD, with a specific focus on synaptic transmission, vesicle trafficking, and mitochondrial function.
- A nutrition/health mindset on commercial Big Data and drivers of food demand in modern and traditional systems. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Dec; 1331(1):278-95.
Building greater reciprocity between traditional and modern food systems and better convergence of human and economic development outcomes may enable the production and consumption of accessible, affordable, and appealing nutritious food for all. Information being key to such transformations, this roadmap paper offers a strategy that capitalizes on Big Data and advanced analytics, setting the foundation for an integrative intersectoral knowledge platform to better inform and monitor behavioral change and ecosystem transformation. Building upon the four P's of marketing (product, price, promotion, placement), we examine digital commercial marketing data through the lenses of the four A's of food security (availability, accessibility, affordability, appeal) using advanced consumer choice analytics for archetypal traditional (fresh fruits and vegetables) and modern (soft drinks) product categories. We demonstrate that business practices typically associated with the latter also have an important, if not more important, impact on purchases of the former category. Implications and limitations of the approach are discussed.
- Improving complementary feeding in Ghana: reaching the vulnerable through innovative business-the case of KOKO Plus. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Dec; 1331(1):76-89.
Reaching vulnerable populations in low-resource settings with effective business solutions is critical, given the global nature of food and nutrition security. Over a third of deaths of children under 5 years of age are directly or indirectly caused by undernutrition. The Lancet series on malnutrition (2013) estimates that over 220,000 lives of children under 5 years of age can be saved through the implementation of an infant and young child feeding and care package. A unique project being undertaken in Ghana aims to bring in two elements of innovation in infant and young child feeding. The first involves a public-private partnership (PPP) to develop and test the efficacy and effectiveness of the delivery of a low-cost complementary food supplement in Ghana called KOKO Plus™. The second involves the testing of the concepts of social entrepreneurship and social business models in the distribution and delivery of the product. This paper shares information on the ongoing activities in the testing of concepts of PPPs, social business, social marketing, and demand creation using different delivery platforms to achieve optimal nutrition in Ghanaian infants and young children in the first 2 years of life. It also focuses on outlining the concept of using PPP and base-of-the-pyramid approaches toward achieving nutrition objectives.
- Agriculture, health, and wealth convergence: bridging traditional food systems and modern agribusiness solutions. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Dec; 1331(1):1-14.
The causes of many vexing challenges facing 21st-century society are at the nexus of systems involved in agriculture, health and wealth production, consumption, and distribution. Using food as a test bed, and on the basis of emerging roadmaps that set achievable objectives over a 1- to 3-year horizon, we introduce this special feature with convergence thinking and practice at its core. Specifically, we discuss academic papers structured around four themes: (1) evidence for a need for convergence and underlying mechanisms at the individual and societal levels; (2) strategy for mainstreaming convergence as a driver of business engagement and innovation; (3) convergence in policy and governance; (4) convergence in metrics and methods. Academic papers under each theme are accompanied by a roadmap paper reporting on the current status of concrete transformative convergence-building projects associated with that theme. We believe that the insights provided by these papers have the potential to enable all actors throughout society to singly and collectively work to build supply and demand for nutritious food, in both traditional and modern food systems, while placing the burdens of malnutrition and ill health on their core strategic agendas.
- One Medicine One Science: a framework for exploring challenges at the intersection of animals, humans, and the environment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Dec 4.
Characterizing the health consequences of interactions among animals, humans, and the environment in the face of climatic change, environmental disturbance, and expanding human populations is a critical global challenge in today's world. Exchange of interdisciplinary knowledge in basic and applied sciences and medicine that includes scientists, health professionals, key sponsors, and policy experts revealed that relevant case studies of monkeypox, influenza A, tuberculosis, and HIV can be used to guide strategies for anticipating and responding to new disease threats such as the Ebola and Chickungunya viruses, as well as to improve programs to control existing zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis. The problem of safely feeding the world while preserving the environment and avoiding issues such as antibiotic resistance in animals and humans requires cooperative scientific problem solving. Food poisoning outbreaks resulting from Salmonella growing in vegetables have demonstrated the need for knowledge of pathogen evolution and adaptation in developing appropriate countermeasures for prevention and policy development. Similarly, pesticide use for efficient crop production must take into consideration bee population declines that threaten the availability of the two-thirds of human foods that are dependent on pollination. This report presents and weighs the objective merits of competing health priorities and identifies gaps in knowledge that threaten health security, to promote discussion of major public policy implications such that they may be decided with at least an underlying platform of facts.
- Sequencing the head and neck cancer genome: implications for therapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Dec 1.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a disease with significant morbidity and mortality. The advancement of next-generation sequencing technologies now enables the landscape of genetic alterations in HNSCCs to be deciphered. In this review, we describe the mutation spectrum discovered in HNSCCs, especially human papilloma virus-associated and/or tobacco smoke exposure-associated HNSCCs. We also describe related research from two independent investigators and from the Cancer Genome Atlas. Emphasis is placed on the therapeutic implications of genes frequently altered in HNSCCs (i.e., TP53, PIK3CA, and NOTCH1) and their corresponding pathways, with a particular focus on recent findings of Notch signaling pathway activation in HNSCC. We also discuss the application of integrated genomic pathway-based analysis for precision cancer therapy in HNSCC.
- Rapid influences of cued visual memories on attentional guidance. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Nov 26.
There is evidence that the deployment of attention can be biased by the content of visual working memory. Recently, it has been shown that focusing internal attention to a specific item in memory not only increases the accessibility of that specific item for retrieval, but also results in increased attentional guidance toward matching external stimuli by that item. Here, we investigated the time course of attentional guidance by cued memories. Following a retro-cue that prioritized one of two memory items, participants performed a visual search task. The interval between the cue and the search display was varied. Consistent with earlier findings, we observed memory-related capture when the search display contained a distractor that was related to the cued item in memory. No such effects were found for the uncued items or when none of the memory items were prioritized by a retro-cue. Results suggest that the prioritization by a retro-cue is a very rapid process that starts to affect perceptual selection within the first 100-200 ms following the cue.
- Pro-oxidant and antioxidant processes in aquatic invertebrates. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Nov 26.
Most aquatic organisms behave as conformers with respect to environmental variables, including changes in O2 availability. Aquatic species that show tolerance to hypoxia/anoxia or hyperoxia can be excellent models for investigating physiological and biochemical adaptations that deal with changing O2 and consequent changes in metabolic rate and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, I summarize selected data on ROS production and antioxidant defenses in a model marine invertebrate, the bivalve Mytilus, under different environmental and physiological conditions. An example of other bivalves adapted to particular environments (the Antarctic Sea) is also reported. These studies contributed to the knowledge on pro-oxidant and antioxidant processes in aquatic invertebrates from comparative and environmental perspectives. A common role for metallothioneins in antioxidant protection in mammals and aquatic invertebrates is underlined in different conditions, from human disease to responses to environmental exposure to heavy metals.
- New functions and signaling mechanisms for the class of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Nov 25.
The class of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs), with 33 human homologs, is the second largest family of GPCRs. In addition to a seven-transmembrane α-helix-a structural feature of all GPCRs-the class of aGPCRs is characterized by the presence of a large N-terminal extracellular region. In addition, all aGPCRs but one (GPR123) contain a GPCR autoproteolysis-inducing (GAIN) domain that mediates autoproteolytic cleavage at the GPCR autoproteolysis site motif to generate N- and a C-terminal fragments (NTF and CTF, respectively) during protein maturation. Subsequently, the NTF and CTF are associated noncovalently as a heterodimer at the plasma membrane. While the biological function of the GAIN domain-mediated autocleavage is not fully understood, mounting evidence suggests that the NTF and CTF possess distinct biological activities in addition to their function as a receptor unit. We discuss recent advances in understanding the biological functions, signaling mechanisms, and disease associations of the aGPCRs.
- The osteoblastic niche in the context of multiple myeloma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Nov 25.
The osteoblastic niche has a critical role in the regulation of hemopoietic stem cell (HSC) quiescence and self-renewal and in the support of hematopoiesis. Several mechanisms are involved in the crosstalk between stem cells and osteoblasts, including soluble cytokines, adhesion molecules, and signal pathways such as the wingless-Int (Wnt), Notch, and parathyroid hormone pathways. According to the most recent evidence, there is an overlap between osteoblastic and perivascular niches that affects HSC function involving mesenchymal stromal and endothelial cells and a gradient of oxygen regulated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Derived from plasma cells, multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematopoietic malignancy characterized by a peculiar dependency on the bone microenvironment. Quiescent MM cells may reside in the osteoblastic niche for protection from apoptotic stimuli; in turn, MM cells suppress osteoblast formation and function, leading to impairment of bone formation and the development of osteolytic lesions. Several recent studies have investigated the mechanisms involved in the relationship between osteoblasts and MM cells and identified potential therapeutic targets in the osteoblastic niche, including the HIF-1α, Runx2, and Wnt (both canonical and noncanonical) signaling pathways.