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Ann N Y Acad Sci [journal]
- Interdisciplinary perspectives on the flow of time. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Sep 29.
Where does the study of the flow of time belong: physics, the cognitive sciences, philosophy, or somewhere else? Physicists and philosophers have set themselves up into two camps: those who believe there is genuine flow or becoming in the world and those who believe there is just a block of events. What had not been considered is whether the subjective feeling of flow of time is the same the world over, whether it could be tampered with by brain injury, or whether it is present at all developmental stages. We lay out the problem, explain terms, and provide synopses of relevant ideas.
- Problem of time: facets and Machian strategy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Sep 29.
The problem of time is that "time" in each of ordinary quantum theory and general relativity are mutually incompatible notions. This causes difficulties in trying to put these two theories together to form a theory of quantum gravity. The problem of time has eight facets in canonical approaches. I clarify that all but one of these facets already occur at the classical level, and reconceptualize and re-name some of these facets as follows. The frozen formalism problem becomes temporal relationalism, the thin sandwich problem becomes configurational relationalism, via the notion of best matching. The problem of observables becomes the problem of beables, and the functional evolution problem becomes the constraint closure problem. I also outline how each of the global and multiple-choice problems of time have their own plurality of facets. This article additionally contains a local resolution to the problem of time at the conceptual level and which is actually realizable for the relational triangle and minisuperspace models. This resolution is, moreover, Machian, and has three levels: classical, semiclassical, and a combined semiclassical-histories-timeless records scheme. I end by delineating the current frontiers of this program toward resolution of the problem of time in the cases of full general relativity and of slightly inhomogeneous cosmology.
- Preface to The 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Sep; 1325(1):v.
- Surgical treatments for esophageal cancers. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Sep; 1325(1):242-68.
The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the role of the nurse in preparation of esophageal resection (ER); the management of patients who develop high-grade dysplasia after having undergone Nissen fundoplication; the trajectory of care for the patient with esophageal cancer; the influence of the site of tumor in the choice of treatment; the best location for esophagogastrostomy; management of chylous leak after esophagectomy; the optimal approach to manage thoracic esophageal leak after esophagectomy; the choice for operational approach in surgery of cardioesophageal crossing; the advantages of robot esophagectomy; the place of open esophagectomy; the advantages of esophagectomy compared to definitive chemoradiotherapy; the pathologist report in the resected specimen; the best way to manage patients with unsuspected positive microscopic margin after ER; enhanced recovery after surgery for ER: expedited care protocols; and long-term quality of life in patients following esophagectomy.
- Benign and precursor lesions in the esophagus. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Sep; 1325(1):226-41.
The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the role of salivary stimulation and esophageal secretion of protective factors in prevention of adenocarcinoma sequelae in gastroesophageal reflux disease; the pediatric conditions associated with esophageal cancer; the relationship of achalasia and pseudoachalasia with esophageal cancer; the potential for malignant transformation in eosinophilic esophagitis and overlap syndromes; the role of lymphocytic esophagitis as an overlapping phenotype; the role of Barrett's esophagus as a premalignant condition; the indications and type of treatment of premalignant conditions of the esophagus; and the decision for use of endoscopical procedures in premalignant conditions of the esophagus.
- Adenocarcinoma at the gastroesophageal junction. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Sep; 1325(1):211-25.
The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the clinical differences between carcinomas arising slightly above, slightly below, and within the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ); information provided by biopsies; information provided by resection specimens following neoadjuvant therapy; histologic differences existing between carcinomas arising slightly above, slightly below, and within the GEJ; differences provided by immunohistochemistry in these tumors; information given by endoscopic mucosal resection specimens; the role of esophageal pyloric gland adenomas as precursors of adenocarcinomas in the region of the cardia; the role of pancreatic metaplasia; Her2 immunoreactivity to make distinctions in the site of origin; and intestinal metaplasia limited to the cardia as a precursor of adenocarcinoma.
- Therapeutic approaches to gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinomas. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Sep; 1325(1):197-210.
The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the distinction between adenocarcinomas above, below, or within the gastroesophageal junction; combined modality therapy; tumor markers for use in personalized medicine; PET-CT and endoscopic biopsies in the evaluation of response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy; a standardized grading system for tumor regression in squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma; the experimental basis for new approaches to medical treatment; the criteria measuring response in esophageal cancer; and the impact of novel imaging on staging and response assessment.
- Infection and esophageal cancer. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Sep; 1325(1):187-96.
The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on infection and cancer, and includes commentaries on the influence of bacterial infections on mucin expression and cancer risk; the role of esophageal bacterial biota in the incidence of esophageal disease; the association between human papilloma virus (HPV) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; the role of HPV in esophageal adenocarcinoma; the role of Helicobacter pylori in cardiac carcinoma; and the role of Epstein-Barr virus infection in esophageal cancer.
- Translational research on Barrett's esophagus. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Sep; 1325(1):170-86.
The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on translational research on Barrett's esophagus that address evidence for genetic instability in esophageal cancer; the role of microsatellite instability; the use of histologic and serum Doublecortin-like kinase 1 expression for progression of Barrett's esophagus to adenocarcinoma; the oxidative stress in Barrett's tumorigenesis; the genomic alterations in esophageal cancer; in vivo modeling in Barrett's esophagus; epigenetic and transcriptional regulation in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma; and normal and disordered regeneration in Barrett's esophagus.
- Superficial and early cancers of the esophagus. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Sep; 1325(1):159-69.
The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the evolution of Barrett's dysplasia to early cancer; the early detection of esophageal cancer in China; new technologies of treatment for dysplasia; the prognostic value of molecular markers expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; the follow-up schedule after ablation of high-grade dysplasia; intramucosal cancers; and tubular widespread endoscopic esophageal submucosal dissection with high-dose steroid stricture prevention.