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Ann N Y Acad Sci [journal]
- Foreword to childhood onset developmental disorders. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013 Nov; 1304(1):iii.
- New strategies and findings for behavioral interventions in autism spectrum disorders. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013 Nov; 1304(1):70-6.
Behavioral interventions are the major source of change for children with autism spectrum disorders and a major cost to families and government. In the last 5 years, a number of carefully designed intervention studies have provided new information about the effects of caregiver training and direct instruction on behavior treatments. Outcomes of these interventions are neither easily assessed nor simple, but are dependent on child characteristics as well as caregiver skills and attitudes. Some interventions aimed at specific skills have similar results, yet there is growing evidence that child interventions may have different effects than caregiver training, although both may affect outcomes in the long term. New research strategies and findings are discussed, with a focus on how underlying behaviors and specific components may contribute to intervention outcomes.
- Treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013 Nov; 1304(1):52-61.
This article provides a brief review of the current available data concerning present treatment and potential new treatment advances for pediatric anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Disorder-specific treatment methods and innovations, particularly computer-assisted methods of delivery for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) will be reviewed. Additionally, the paper will discuss novel psychopharmacological compounds (e.g., d-cycloserine, riluzole, memantine, and anticonvulsant medications). Available evidence for the efficacy of novel medication strategies in adult studies and implications for their use in pediatrics will be discussed.
- The timing of pediatric epilepsy syndromes: What are the developmental triggers? [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013 Nov; 1304(1):45-51.
Pediatric epilepsy is characterized by multiple epilepsy syndromes with specific developmental triggers. They initiate spontaneously at critical periods of development and can just as spontaneously remit. Accompanying neurocognitive disabilities are often specific to the epileptic syndrome. Infantile or epileptic spasms have a very specific developmental window in the first year of life. Preceding the epilepsy, developmental arrest is common. The neurologic pathways underlying the development of spasms have been identified through PET scans as developmental abnormalities of serotonergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter systems in the brain stem and basal ganglia. Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and benign centrotemporal epilepsy syndrome (BECTS) are both known genetic epilepsy syndromes; they have a discrete onset in childhood with remission by puberty. In CAE, disturbances of specific calcium channels at key developmental stages lead to aberrant disruption of thalamocortical synchrony. Similarly, a complex interplay between brain development, maturation, and susceptibility genes underlies the seizures and the neurocognitive deficits of BECTS.
- Probiotics, prebiotics, and the host microbiome: the science of translation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013 Nov 22.
Recent advances in our understanding of the community structure and function of the human microbiome have implications for the potential role of probiotics and prebiotics in promoting human health. A group of experts recently met to review the latest advances in microbiota/microbiome research and discuss the implications for development of probiotics and prebiotics, primarily as they relate to effects mediated via the intestine. The goals of the meeting were to share recent advances in research on the microbiota, microbiome, probiotics, and prebiotics, and to discuss these findings in the contexts of regulatory barriers, evolving healthcare environments, and potential effects on a variety of health topics, including the development of obesity and diabetes; the long-term consequences of exposure to antibiotics early in life to the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota; lactose intolerance; and the relationship between the GI microbiota and the central nervous system, with implications for depression, cognition, satiety, and mental health for people living in developed and developing countries. This report provides an overview of these discussions.
- Foreword to the emerging science of consciousness: mind, brain, and the human experience. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013 Nov; 1303(1):v-vi.
- Becoming conscious: the science of mindfulness. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013 Nov; 1303(1):87-104.
Many of us go through our daily lives on autopilot, not fully aware of our conscious experiences. In a discussion moderated by Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, neuroscientists Richard Davidson and Amishi Jha and clinical mindfulness expert Jon Kabat-Zinn explore the role of consciousness in mental and physical health, how we can train our minds to be more flexible and adaptable, and cutting-edge neuroscience findings about the transformation of consciousness through mindfulness and contemplative practice. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred February 6, 2013, 7:00-8:15 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City.
- Music and the mind: the magical power of sound. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013 Nov; 1303(1):63-79.
Music has been a wonderful tool to investigate the interconnection between brain science, psychology, and human experience. Moderated by Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, cognitive neuroscientist and musician Jamshed Bharucha, music therapy pioneer Concetta Tomaino, jazz pianist Vijay Iyer, and physician musician Charles Limb discuss the neurological basis of creativity and aesthetic judgment and the capacity of music to elicit specific emotions and to heal the body. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred December 12, 2012, 7:00-8:15 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City.
- How memoirists mold the truth. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013 Nov; 1303(1):61-2.
- The mystery of memory: in search of the past. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013 Nov; 1303(1):36-55.
A universal fascination with how we remember, forget, and create false memories cuts across the arts and sciences, as do the questions of how and where memories are formed and preserved. Moderated by Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, novelist and comparative literature professor André Aciman (City University of New York), neuroscientist Joseph LeDoux (New York University), psychologist Daniel Schacter (Harvard University), and historian of science and medicine Alison Winter (University of Chicago) discuss how memory impacts our perception of ourselves, the development of personality, and the ability to construct and reconstruct our past experience. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred November 14, 2012, 7:00-8:15 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City.