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Ann N Y Acad Sci [journal]
- Preface for addiction reviews. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct; 1327(1):v.
- Issue information. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct; 1327(1):i.
- A dual-systems perspective on addiction: contributions from neuroimaging and cognitive training. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct; 1327(1):62-78.
Dual-systems theories explain lapses in self-control in terms of a conflict between automatic and deliberative modes of behavioral control. Numerous studies have now tested whether the brain areas that control behavior are organized in a manner consistent with dual-systems models. Brain regions directly associated with the mesolimbic dopamine system, the nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in particular, capture some of the features assumed by automatic processing. Regions in the lateral prefrontal cortex are more closely linked to deliberative processing and the exertion of self-control in the suppression of impulses. While identifying these regions crudely supports dual-systems theories, important modifications to what constitutes automatic and deliberative behavioral control are also suggested. Experiments have identified various means by which automatic processes may be sculpted. Additional work decomposes deliberative processes into component functions such as generalized working memory, reappraisal of emotional stimuli, and prospection. The importance of deconstructing dual-systems models into specific cognitive processes is clear for understanding and treating addiction. We discuss intervention possibilities suggested by recent research, and focus in particular on cognitive training approaches to bolster deliberative control processes that may aid quit attempts.
- Disordered gambling: the evolving concept of behavioral addiction. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct; 1327(1):46-61.
The reclassification of gambling disorder within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) addictions category marks an important step for addiction science. The similarities between gambling disorder and the substance use disorders have been well documented. As gambling is unlikely to exert actively damaging effects on the brain, the cognitive sequelae of gambling disorder may provide insights into addictive vulnerabilities; this idea is critically evaluated in light of recent structural imaging data. The second part of the review analyzes a fundamental question of how a behavior can become addictive in the absence of exogenous drug stimulation. The relative potency of drug and nondrug rewards is considered, alongside evidence that cognitive distortions in the processing of chance (for example, the illusion of control and the gambler's fallacy) may constitute an important added ingredient in gambling. Further understanding of these mechanisms at neural and behavioral levels will be critical for the classification of future behavioral addictions, and I consider the current research data for obesity and binge eating, compulsive shopping, and internet gaming disorder.
- Whole-of-society monitoring framework for sugar, salt, and fat consumption and noncommunicable diseases in India. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct 21.
India has experienced a rising prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in the past 15 years: the prevalence of diabetes has increased from 5.9% to 9.1%, hypertension from 17.2% to 29.2%, and obesity from 4% to 15%. The increase is among all socioeconomic groups and in urban and rural populations, though the quantum of change varies. A concomitant increase in per capita consumption of sugar from 22 to 55.3 g/day and total fat from 21.2 to 54 g/day was observed, with significant differences between states of high and low human development index (HDI). Per capita consumption of sugar, salt, and fat is consistently and significantly associated with overweight and obesity but variably associated with the occurrence of hypertension and diabetes. Market research shows that approximately 50-60% of total salt, sugar, and fat in Indian markets is procured by bulk purchasers, generally for manufacturing processed food items. This sector of the Indian economy is among the fastest growing, with several policy incentives. It is not clear from most of the data sets whether available information on per capita sugar, salt, and fat consumption has considered the contribution of processed and ready-to-eat food items. The unprecedented changes of rapid urbanization, mechanization, and globalization demand close monitoring of social, developmental, and economic determinants. This paper provides pieces of evidence to justify a whole-of-society (WoS) framework for monitoring the inputs, processes, and behavioral components of the National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke (NPCDCS) in India.
- Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct 20.
Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. The new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is also included on whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. The new guidelines are also published in Advanced Materials, Headache, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines.
- Evaluation of bone marrow as a metastatic site of human neuroblastoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct 14.
Arising from neural crest cells, neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor. The clinical presentation of NB is heterogeneous, ranging from patients with asymptomatic tumor masses, who require minimal treatment, to patients with metastatic disease who are treated with multimodal therapies. Clinical outcome is also variable, with overall survival ranging from 98% to 100% in infants with stage 1 NB, to less than 30% in patients with stage 4 MYCN-amplified NB. More than 50% of patients show metastasis at diagnosis, with the involvement of different vascularized tissues, including the bone marrow (BM). In this paper, we focus on BM infiltration by NB cells, which is considered an adverse prognostic factor. In particular, we discuss the role of different biological factors that may favor the dissemination of NB cells in the BM, such as chromosomic abnormalities, gene amplification, transcription factors, cell-surface receptors, products of oncogenes, and, more importantly, cytokines and chemokines. In addition, we analyze different techniques to evaluate BM infiltration by malignant cells (i.e., flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). Finally, we review recent data regarding phenotypic and genetic characterization of BM-infiltrating malignant cells and characterization of the BM microenvironment in NB patients compared to healthy subjects.
- Autoimmune encephalopathies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct 14.
Over the past 10 years, the continual discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with antibodies to cell-surface or synaptic proteins has changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously unknown or mischaracterized. We review here the process of discovery, the symptoms, and the target antigens of 11 autoimmune encephalitic disorders, grouped by syndromes and approached from a clinical perspective. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, several subtypes of limbic encephalitis, stiff-person spectrum disorders, and other autoimmune encephalitides that result in psychosis, seizures, or abnormal movements are described in detail. We include a novel encephalopathy with prominent sleep dysfunction that provides an intriguing link between chronic neurodegeneration and cell-surface autoimmunity (IgLON5). Some of the caveats of limited serum testing are outlined. In addition, we review the underlying cellular and synaptic mechanisms that for some disorders confirm the antibody pathogenicity. The multidisciplinary impact of autoimmune encephalitis has been expanded recently by the discovery that herpes simplex encephalitis is a robust trigger of synaptic autoimmunity, and that some patients may develop overlapping syndromes, including anti-NMDAR encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica or other demyelinating diseases.
- The glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia: evidence from human brain tissue studies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct 14.
A number of studies have indicated that antagonists of the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtypes of glutamate receptors can cause schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy individuals and exacerbate symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. These findings have led to the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia. Here we review the evidence for this hypothesis in postmortem studies of brain tissue from individuals affected by schizophrenia, summarizing studies of glutamate neuron morphology, of expression of glutamate receptors and transporters, and of the synthesizing and metabolizing enzymes for glutamate and its co-agonists. We found consistent evidence of morphological alterations of dendrites of glutamatergic neurons in the cerebral cortex of subjects with schizophrenia and of reduced levels of the axon bouton marker synaptophysin. There were no consistent alterations of mRNA expression of glutamate receptors, although there has been limited study of the corresponding proteins. Studies of the glutamate metabolic pathway have been limited, although there is some evidence that excitatory amino acid transporter-2, glutamine synthetase, and glutaminase have altered expression in schizophrenia. Future studies would benefit from additional direct examination of glutamatergic proteins. Further advances, such as selective testing of synaptic microdomains, cortical layers, and neuronal subtypes, may also be required to elucidate the nature of glutamate signaling impairments in schizophrenia.
- Three types of temporal perspective: characterizing developmental changes in temporal thought. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct; 1326(1):82-9.
This paper provides an outline of the development of temporal thinking that is underpinned by the idea that temporal cognition shifts from being event dependent to event independent over the preschool period. I distinguish between three different ways in which it may be possible to have a perspective on time: (1) a perspective that is grounded in script-like representations of repeated events; (2) a more sophisticated perspective that brings in an fundamental categorical distinction between events that have already happened and events that are yet to come; and (3) a mature temporal perspective that involves orienting oneself in time using a linear temporal framework, with a grasp of the distinctions between past, present, and future. I propose that, with development, children possess each of these types of perspective in turn, and that only the last of these involves being able to represent time in an event-independent way.