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Ann N Y Acad Sci [journal]
- Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct 20.
Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. The new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is also included on whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. The new guidelines are also published in Advanced Materials, Headache, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines.
- Evaluation of bone marrow as a metastatic site of human neuroblastoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct 14.
Arising from neural crest cells, neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor. The clinical presentation of NB is heterogeneous, ranging from patients with asymptomatic tumor masses, who require minimal treatment, to patients with metastatic disease who are treated with multimodal therapies. Clinical outcome is also variable, with overall survival ranging from 98% to 100% in infants with stage 1 NB, to less than 30% in patients with stage 4 MYCN-amplified NB. More than 50% of patients show metastasis at diagnosis, with the involvement of different vascularized tissues, including the bone marrow (BM). In this paper, we focus on BM infiltration by NB cells, which is considered an adverse prognostic factor. In particular, we discuss the role of different biological factors that may favor the dissemination of NB cells in the BM, such as chromosomic abnormalities, gene amplification, transcription factors, cell-surface receptors, products of oncogenes, and, more importantly, cytokines and chemokines. In addition, we analyze different techniques to evaluate BM infiltration by malignant cells (i.e., flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). Finally, we review recent data regarding phenotypic and genetic characterization of BM-infiltrating malignant cells and characterization of the BM microenvironment in NB patients compared to healthy subjects.
- Autoimmune encephalopathies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct 14.
Over the past 10 years, the continual discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with antibodies to cell-surface or synaptic proteins has changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously unknown or mischaracterized. We review here the process of discovery, the symptoms, and the target antigens of 11 autoimmune encephalitic disorders, grouped by syndromes and approached from a clinical perspective. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, several subtypes of limbic encephalitis, stiff-person spectrum disorders, and other autoimmune encephalitides that result in psychosis, seizures, or abnormal movements are described in detail. We include a novel encephalopathy with prominent sleep dysfunction that provides an intriguing link between chronic neurodegeneration and cell-surface autoimmunity (IgLON5). Some of the caveats of limited serum testing are outlined. In addition, we review the underlying cellular and synaptic mechanisms that for some disorders confirm the antibody pathogenicity. The multidisciplinary impact of autoimmune encephalitis has been expanded recently by the discovery that herpes simplex encephalitis is a robust trigger of synaptic autoimmunity, and that some patients may develop overlapping syndromes, including anti-NMDAR encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica or other demyelinating diseases.
- The glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia: evidence from human brain tissue studies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct 14.
A number of studies have indicated that antagonists of the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtypes of glutamate receptors can cause schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy individuals and exacerbate symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. These findings have led to the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia. Here we review the evidence for this hypothesis in postmortem studies of brain tissue from individuals affected by schizophrenia, summarizing studies of glutamate neuron morphology, of expression of glutamate receptors and transporters, and of the synthesizing and metabolizing enzymes for glutamate and its co-agonists. We found consistent evidence of morphological alterations of dendrites of glutamatergic neurons in the cerebral cortex of subjects with schizophrenia and of reduced levels of the axon bouton marker synaptophysin. There were no consistent alterations of mRNA expression of glutamate receptors, although there has been limited study of the corresponding proteins. Studies of the glutamate metabolic pathway have been limited, although there is some evidence that excitatory amino acid transporter-2, glutamine synthetase, and glutaminase have altered expression in schizophrenia. Future studies would benefit from additional direct examination of glutamatergic proteins. Further advances, such as selective testing of synaptic microdomains, cortical layers, and neuronal subtypes, may also be required to elucidate the nature of glutamate signaling impairments in schizophrenia.
- Three types of temporal perspective: characterizing developmental changes in temporal thought. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct; 1326(1):82-9.
This paper provides an outline of the development of temporal thinking that is underpinned by the idea that temporal cognition shifts from being event dependent to event independent over the preschool period. I distinguish between three different ways in which it may be possible to have a perspective on time: (1) a perspective that is grounded in script-like representations of repeated events; (2) a more sophisticated perspective that brings in an fundamental categorical distinction between events that have already happened and events that are yet to come; and (3) a mature temporal perspective that involves orienting oneself in time using a linear temporal framework, with a grasp of the distinctions between past, present, and future. I propose that, with development, children possess each of these types of perspective in turn, and that only the last of these involves being able to represent time in an event-independent way.
- The evolving block universe and the meshing together of times. [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct; 1326(1):26-41.
It has been proposed that spacetime should be regarded as an evolving block universe, bounded to the future by the present time, which continually extends to the future. This future boundary is defined at each time by measuring proper time along Ricci eigenlines from the start of the universe. A key point, then, is that physical reality can be represented at many different scales: hence, the passage of time may be seen as different at different scales, with quantum gravity determining the evolution of spacetime itself at the Planck scale, but quantum field theory and classical physics determining the evolution of events within spacetime at larger scales. The fundamental issue then arises as to how the effective times at different scales mesh together, leading to the concepts of global and local times.
- Development of the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for reducing sudden cardiac death. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct 10.
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) detect ventricular arrhythmias responsible for causing sudden cardiac arrest and then deliver a high-voltage defibrillation shock to terminate the arrhythmia and restore normal cardiac function. Conventional transveneous ICD (TV-ICD) systems require one or more leads to be implanted into the heart through the venous anatomy. While TV-ICDs are well tolerated by most patients, the invasive approach can be associated with severe complications, including systemic infection, cardiac injuries, and lead failures. An entirely subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD) system was developed as a less invasive alternative to TV-ICDs without requiring leads in or on the heart. The S-ICD system provides therapy with a left lateral pulse generator and parasternal electrode configuration that is placed under the skin outside the rib cage, resulting in a much lower risk profile. Advances in defibrillation research and far-field sensing combined to enable development of the commercial S-ICD system. An investigation device exemption (IDE) clinical investigation followed, with FDA approval in September 2012. Evaluation of the long-term performance of the S-ICD system continues, with two independent postmarket registries and a prospective randomized head-to-head trial versus the transvenous ICD.
- Questioning the association between bisphosphonates and atypical femoral fractures. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct 7.
Bisphosphonates are the first-line treatment for osteoporosis. Structurally, they are stable analogues of pyrophosphate and therefore exhibit a high affinity for bone mineral. They reduce bone loss by attenuating the ability of the osteoclast to resorb bone, decreasing activation frequency, and the rate of remodeling. Large prospective randomized placebo-control trials provide unequivocal evidence for a reduction in the incidence of fractures. Impressively, 40 years since their first use in patients, the safety profile of bisphosphonates has been equally reassuring. Questions have arisen lately as to whether bisphosphonates could cause atypical fractures, a rare type of atraumatic or minimal trauma femur fracture occurring below the great trochanter. This question has prompted calls for a broader examination of the long-term effects of bisphosphonate use. An attempt by the Food and Drug Administration to garner consensus and provide definitive views was not successful. This has led to continued anxiety among treating physicians and patients alike, resulting in an overall reduction in prescriptions for bisphosphonates and for osteoporosis therapies in general. Here, we provide an overview of the current data on atypical fractures and bisphosphonate use.
- Convergent innovation for sustainable economic growth and affordable universal health care: innovating the way we innovate. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct 7.
This paper introduces convergent innovation (CI) as a form of meta-innovation-an innovation in the way we innovate. CI integrates human and economic development outcomes, through behavioral and ecosystem transformation at scale, for sustainable prosperity and affordable universal health care within a whole-of-society paradigm. To this end, CI combines technological and social innovation (including organizational, social process, financial, and institutional), with a special focus on the most underserved populations. CI takes a modular approach that convenes around roadmaps for real world change-a portfolio of loosely coupled complementary partners from the business community, civil society, and the public sector. Roadmaps serve as collaborative platforms for focused, achievable, and time-bound projects to provide scalable, sustainable, and resilient solutions to complex challenges, with benefits both to participating partners and to society. In this paper, we first briefly review the literature on technological innovation that sets the foundations of CI and motivates its feasibility. We then describe CI, its building blocks, and enabling conditions for deployment and scaling up, illustrating its operational forms through examples of existing CI-sensitive innovation.
- Convergent innovation for affordable nutrition, health, and health care: the global pulse roadmap. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 Oct 7.
The paper outlines how the principles of convergent innovation (CI) can be applied to bring about a transformation in the pulse value chain. The paper presents three pioneering CI initiatives--two in conception and one in operation--by various actors in the pulse ecosystem, which are delivering economic and human development impact in particular segments of the pulse value chain. It goes on to propose the way forward to scale up these efforts and connect them into a roadmap so as to achieve transformation throughout society, calling into action a number of actors in the ecosystem.