Annals of the rheumatic diseases [journal]
- A randomised, single-blind, single-dose, three-arm, parallel-group study in healthy subjects to demonstrate pharmacokinetic equivalence of ABP 501 and adalimumab. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2016 Jul 27.
To demonstrate pharmacokinetic (PK) similarity of biosimilar candidate ABP 501 relative to adalimumab reference product from the USA and European Union (EU) and evaluate safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of ABP 501.Randomised, single-blind, single-dose, three-arm, parallel-group study; healthy subjects were randomised to receive ABP 501 (n=67), adalimumab (USA) (n=69) or adalimumab (EU) (n=67) 40 mg subcutaneously. Primary end points were area under the serum concentration-time curve from time 0 extrapolated to infinity (AUCinf) and the maximum observed concentration (Cmax). Secondary end points included safety and immunogenicity.AUCinf and Cmax were similar across the three groups. Geometrical mean ratio (GMR) of AUCinf was 1.11 between ABP 501 and adalimumab (USA), and 1.04 between ABP 501 and adalimumab (EU). GMR of Cmax was 1.04 between ABP 501 and adalimumab (USA) and 0.96 between ABP 501 and adalimumab (EU). The 90% CIs for the GMRs of AUCinf and Cmax were within the prespecified standard PK equivalence criteria of 0.80 to 1.25. Treatment-related adverse events were mild to moderate and were reported for 35.8%, 24.6% and 41.8% of subjects in the ABP 501, adalimumab (USA) and adalimumab (EU) groups; incidence of antidrug antibodies (ADAbs) was similar among the study groups.Results of this study demonstrated PK similarity of ABP 501 with adalimumab (USA) and adalimumab (EU) after a single 40-mg subcutaneous injection. No new safety signals with ABP 501 were identified. The safety and tolerability of ABP 501 was similar to the reference products, and similar ADAb rates were observed across the three groups.EudraCT number 2012-000785-37; Results.
- A family-based genome-wide association study reveals an association of spondyloarthritis with MAPK14. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2016 Jul 26.
More than 40 loci have been associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), but less is known about genetic associations in spondyloarthritis (SpA) as a whole. We conducted a family-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify new non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genetic factors associated with SpA.906 subjects from 156 French multiplex families, including 438 with SpA, were genotyped using Affymetrix 250K microarrays. Association was tested with Unphased. The best-associated non-MHC single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were then genotyped in two independent familial cohorts (including 215 French and 294 North American patients with SpA, respectively) to replicate associations.43 non-MHC SNPs yielded an association signal with SpA in the discovery cohort (p<1×10(-4)). In the extension studies, association was replicated at a nominal p value of p<0.05 for 16 SNPs in the second cohort and for three SNPs in the third cohort. Combined analysis identified an association close to genome-wide significance between rs7761118, an intronic SNP of MAPK14, and SpA (p=3.5×10(-7)). Such association appeared to be independent of HLA-B27.We report here for the first time a family-based GWAS study on SpA and identified an associated polymorphism near MAPK14. Further analyses are needed to better understand the functional basis of this genetic association.
- Histone deacetylase 3 regulates the inflammatory gene expression programme of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2016 Jul 25.
Non-selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACi) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties in both in vitro and in vivo models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we investigated the potential contribution of specific class I and class IIb HDACs to inflammatory gene expression in RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS).RA FLS were incubated with pan-HDACi (ITF2357, givinostat) or selective HDAC1/2i, HDAC3/6i, HDAC6i and HDAC8i. Alternatively, FLS were transfected with HDAC3, HDAC6 or interferon (IFN)-α/β receptor alpha chain (IFNAR1) siRNA. mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1β-inducible genes was measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) array and signalling pathway activation by immunoblotting and DNA-binding assays.HDAC3/6i, but not HDAC1/2i and HDAC8i, significantly suppressed the majority of IL-1β-inducible genes targeted by pan-HDACi in RA FLS. Silencing of HDAC3 expression reproduced the effects of HDAC3/6i on gene regulation, contrary to HDAC6-specific inhibition and HDAC6 silencing. Screening of the candidate signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 transcription factor revealed that HDAC3/6i abrogated STAT1 Tyr701 phosphorylation and DNA binding, but did not affect STAT1 acetylation. HDAC3 activity was required for type I IFN production and subsequent STAT1 activation in FLS. Suppression of type I IFN release by HDAC3/6i resulted in reduced expression of a subset of IFN-dependent genes, including the chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL11.Inhibition of HDAC3 in RA FLS largely recapitulates the effects of pan-HDACi in suppressing inflammatory gene expression, including type I IFN production in RA FLS. Our results identify HDAC3 as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of RA and type I IFN-driven autoimmune diseases.
- 2016 updated EULAR evidence-based recommendations for the management of gout. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2016 Jul 25.
New drugs and new evidence concerning the use of established treatments have become available since the publication of the first European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of gout, in 2006. This situation has prompted a systematic review and update of the 2006 recommendations.The EULAR task force consisted of 15 rheumatologists, 1 radiologist, 2 general practitioners, 1 research fellow, 2 patients and 3 experts in epidemiology/methodology from 12 European countries. A systematic review of the literature concerning all aspects of gout treatments was performed. Subsequently, recommendations were formulated by use of a Delphi consensus approach.Three overarching principles and 11 key recommendations were generated. For the treatment of flare, colchicine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), oral or intra-articular steroids or a combination are recommended. In patients with frequent flare and contraindications to colchicine, NSAIDs and corticosteroids, an interleukin-1 blocker should be considered. In addition to education and a non-pharmacological management approach, urate-lowering therapy (ULT) should be considered from the first presentation of the disease, and serum uric acid (SUA) levels should be maintained at<6 mg/dL (360 µmol/L) and <5 mg/dL (300 µmol/L) in those with severe gout. Allopurinol is recommended as first-line ULT and its dosage should be adjusted according to renal function. If the SUA target cannot be achieved with allopurinol, then febuxostat, a uricosuric or combining a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with a uricosuric should be considered. For patients with refractory gout, pegloticase is recommended.These recommendations aim to inform physicians and patients about the non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments for gout and to provide the best strategies to achieve the predefined urate target to cure the disease.
- EULAR recommendations for women's health and the management of family planning, assisted reproduction, pregnancy and menopause in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and/or antiphospholipid syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2016 Jul 25.
Develop recommendations for women's health issues and family planning in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and/or antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).Systematic review of evidence followed by modified Delphi method to compile questions, elicit expert opinions and reach consensus.Family planning should be discussed as early as possible after diagnosis. Most women can have successful pregnancies and measures can be taken to reduce the risks of adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Risk stratification includes disease activity, autoantibody profile, previous vascular and pregnancy morbidity, hypertension and the use of drugs (emphasis on benefits from hydroxychloroquine and antiplatelets/anticoagulants). Hormonal contraception and menopause replacement therapy can be used in patients with stable/inactive disease and low risk of thrombosis. Fertility preservation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues should be considered prior to the use of alkylating agents. Assisted reproduction techniques can be safely used in patients with stable/inactive disease; patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies/APS should receive anticoagulation and/or low-dose aspirin. Assessment of disease activity, renal function and serological markers is important for diagnosing disease flares and monitoring for obstetrical adverse outcomes. Fetal monitoring includes Doppler ultrasonography and fetal biometry, particularly in the third trimester, to screen for placental insufficiency and small for gestational age fetuses. Screening for gynaecological malignancies is similar to the general population, with increased vigilance for cervical premalignant lesions if exposed to immunosuppressive drugs. Human papillomavirus immunisation can be used in women with stable/inactive disease.Recommendations for women's health issues in SLE and/or APS were developed using an evidence-based approach followed by expert consensus.
- Disease activity states of the DAPSA, a psoriatic arthritis specific instrument, are valid against functional status and structural progression. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2016 Jul 25.
Recently, disease activity states were developed for the Disease Activity index for PSoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA). Here, we assess if different DAPSA disease activity states are associated with different degrees of functional impairment and different extents of joint damage progression in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA).We used data from two pivotal trials of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors in PsA (IMPACT II and GO-REVEAL) and identified patients in DAPSA remission (REM, ≤4), and low, moderate or high disease activity (LDA, ≤14; MDA, ≤28; HDA, >28) at 6 months. Across these groups we compared the functional scores (Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index, HAQ and physical component scale of the Short Form-36, PCS), and 1-year structural progression (PsA-modified Sharp/van der Heijde Score).We identified 310 from GO-REVEAL and 130 from IMPACT II, with a mean (SD) baseline DAPSA of 48.8 (26.4) and 44.6 (17.9), respectively. HAQ scores increased across patients groups in the four DAPSA disease activity states, while PCS decreased (p<0.001 for both). The mean progression in the combined cohort was -0.47 for REM, -0.28 for LDA, -0.14 for MDA and 0.51 for HDA (p<0.001). This association was also significant in the individual trial cohorts, and in the subgroups of patients treated with TNF inhibitors or placebo. Higher DAPSA scores were significantly and independently associated with probability of structural progression in multiple analyses.Disease activity states of the PsA specific DAPSA score are highly valid for future use as endpoints in clinical trials or as targets in clinical practice.IMPACT 2: NCT02152254; GO-REVEAL: NCT00265096.
- Riociguat for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with connective tissue disease: results from PATENT-1 and PATENT-2. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2016 Jul 25.
The 12-week, phase III Pulmonary Arterial hyperTENsion sGC-stimulator Trial (PATENT)-1 study investigated riociguat in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Here, we present a prospectively planned analysis of the safety and efficacy of riociguat in the subgroup of patients with PAH associated with connective tissue disease (PAH-CTD).Patients with PAH-CTD were further classified post hoc as having PAH associated with systemic sclerosis or PAH-other defined CTD. In PATENT-1, patients received riociguat (maximum 2.5 or 1.5 mg three times daily) or placebo. Efficacy endpoints included change from baseline in 6-minute walking distance (6MWD; primary endpoint), haemodynamics and WHO functional class (WHO FC). In the long-term extension PATENT-2, patients received riociguat (maximum 2.5 mg three times daily); the primary endpoint was safety and tolerability.In patients with PAH-CTD, riociguat increased mean 6MWD, WHO FC, pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac index. Improvements in 6MWD and WHO FC persisted at 2 years. Two-year survival of patients with PAH-CTD was the same as for idiopathic PAH (93%). Riociguat had a similar safety profile in patients with PAH-CTD to that of the overall population.Riociguat was well tolerated and associated with positive trends in 6MWD and other endpoints that were sustained at 2 years in patients with PAH-CTD.PATENT-1 (NCT00810693), PATENT-2 (NCT00863681).
- Physical trauma recorded in primary care is associated with the onset of psoriatic arthritis among patients with psoriasis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2016 Jul 25.
To evaluate the risk of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) among patients with psoriasis exposed to physical trauma.A matched cohort study was performed using data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN). Patients with psoriasis exposed to trauma were randomly matched to up to five unexposed psoriasis controls based on gender, age, duration of psoriasis and the date of entry into THIN. Trauma exposure was stratified into subgroups of joint, bone, nerve and skin trauma. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the HRs for developing PsA. For comparison, an identical analysis was performed in the entire THIN population evaluating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk following physical trauma.Patients with psoriasis exposed to trauma (N=15 416) and matched unexposed patients (N=55 230) were followed for a total of 425 120 person-years during which 1010 incident PsA cases were recorded. Adjusting for potential confounders, patients with psoriasis exposed to trauma had an increased risk of PsA compared with controls, with a multivariate HR of 1.32 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.54). In our subset analysis, bone and joint trauma were associated with multivariate HRs of 1.46 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.04) and 1.50 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.90), respectively; while nerve and skin trauma were not associated with a statistically significant increase in risk compared with controls. Patients exposed to trauma in the entire THIN population did not have an increased risk of developing RA: HR 1.04 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.10).Patients with psoriasis exposed to physical trauma are at an increased risk of developing PsA.
- Endothelial progenitor dysfunction associates with a type I interferon signature in primary antiphospholipid syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2016 Jul 18.
Patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are at risk for subclinical endothelial injury, as well as accelerated atherosclerosis. In the related disease systemic lupus erythematosus, there is a well-established defect in circulating endothelial progenitors, which leads to an accrual of endothelial damage over time. This defect has been at least partially attributed to exaggerated expression of type I interferons (IFNs). We sought to determine whether these pathways are important in APS.We studied 68 patients with primary APS. Endothelial progenitors were assessed by flow cytometry and functional assay. Type I IFN activity was determined by a well-accepted bioassay, while peripheral blood mononuclear cells were scored for expression of IFN-responsive genes.Endothelial progenitors from patients with APS demonstrated a marked defect in the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells, a phenotype which could be mimicked by treating control progenitors with APS sera. Elevated type I IFN activity was detected in the circulation of patients with APS (a finding that was then replicated in an independent cohort). While IgG depletion from APS sera did not rescue endothelial progenitor function, the dysfunction was successfully reversed by a type I IFN receptor-neutralising antibody.We describe, for the first time to our knowledge, an IFN signature in primary APS and show that this promotes impaired endothelial progenitor function. This work opens the door to novel approaches that may mitigate vascular damage in APS, such as anti-IFN drugs.