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Annals of the rheumatic diseases [journal]
- MRI assessment of suppression of structural damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving rituximab: results from the randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind RA-SCORE study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2014 Oct 29.
To evaluate changes in structural damage and joint inflammation assessed by MRI following rituximab treatment in a Phase 3 study of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate (MTX) who were naive to biological therapy.Patients were randomised to receive two infusions of placebo (n=63), rituximab 500 mg (n=62), or rituximab 1000 mg (n=60) intravenously on days 1 and 15. MRI scans and radiographs of the most inflamed hand and wrist were acquired at baseline, weeks 12 (MRI only), 24 and 52. The primary end point was the change in MRI erosion score from baseline at week 24.Patients treated with rituximab demonstrated significantly less progression in the mean MRI erosion score compared with those treated with placebo at weeks 24 (0.47, 0.18 and 1.60, respectively, p=0.003 and p=0.001 for the two rituximab doses vs placebo) and 52 (-0.30, 0.11 and 3.02, respectively; p<0.001 and p<0.001). Cartilage loss at 52 weeks was significantly reduced in the rituximab group compared with the placebo group. Other secondary end points of synovitis and osteitis improved significantly with rituximab compared with placebo as early as 12 weeks and improved further at weeks 24 and 52.This study demonstrated that rituximab significantly reduced erosion and cartilage loss at week 24 and week 52 in MTX-inadequate responder patients with active RA, suggesting that MRI is a valuable tool for assessing inflammatory and structural damage in patients with established RA receiving rituximab.NCT00578305.
- Risk of major cardiovascular events in patients with psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based cohort study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2014 Oct 28.
We aimed to quantify the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) among patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriasis without known PsA compared with the general population after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors.A population-based longitudinal cohort study from 1994 to 2010 was performed in The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a primary care medical record database in the UK. Patients aged 18-89 years of age with PsA, RA or psoriasis were included. Up to 10 unexposed controls matched on practice and index date were selected for each patient with PsA. Outcomes included cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents and the composite outcome (MACE). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the HRs for each outcome adjusted for traditional risk factors. A priori, we hypothesised an interaction between disease status and disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) use.Patients with PsA (N=8706), RA (N=41 752), psoriasis (N=138 424) and unexposed controls (N=81 573) were identified. After adjustment for traditional risk factors, the risk of MACE was higher in patients with PsA not prescribed a DMARD (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.49), patients with RA (No DMARD: HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.50, DMARD: HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.46 to 1.70), patients with psoriasis not prescribed a DMARD (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.15) and patients with severe psoriasis (DMARD users: HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.73).Cardiovascular risk should be addressed with all patients affected by psoriasis, PsA or RA.
- Performance of classification criteria for gout in early and established disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2014 Oct 28.
To compare the sensitivity and specificity of different classification criteria for gout in early and established disease.This was a cross-sectional study of consecutive rheumatology clinic patients with joint swelling in which gout was defined by presence or absence of monosodium urate crystals as observed by a certified examiner at presentation. Early disease was defined as patient-reported onset of symptoms of 2 years or less.Data from 983 patients were collected and gout was present in 509 (52%). Early disease was present in 144 gout cases and 228 non-cases. Sensitivity across criteria was better in established disease (95.3% vs 84.1%, p<0.001) and specificity was better in early disease (79.9% vs 52.5%, p<0.001). The overall best performing clinical criteria were the Rome criteria with sensitivity/specificity in early and established disease of 60.3%/84.4% and 86.4%/63.6%. Criteria not requiring synovial fluid analysis had sensitivity and specificity of less than 80% in early and established disease.Existing classification criteria for gout have sensitivity of over 80% in early and established disease but currently available criteria that do not require synovial fluid analysis have inadequate specificity especially later in the disease. Classification criteria for gout with better specificity are required, although the findings should be cautiously applied to non-rheumatology clinic populations.
- The role of kinin B1 receptor and the effect of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition on acute gout attacks in rodents. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2014 Oct 24.
Verify the role of the kinin B1 receptors (B1R) and the effect of ACE inhibitors (ACEi) on acute gout induced by monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in rodents.Painful (overt pain and allodynia) and inflammatory parameters (joint oedema, leukocyte trafficking, interleukin-1β levels) of acute gout attacks were assessed several hours after an intra-articular injection of MSU (1.25 or 0.5 mg/articulation) into the ankle of rats or mice, respectively. The role of B1R was investigated using pharmacological antagonism or gene deletion. Additionally, B1R immunoreactivity in ankle tissue and sensory neurons, kininase I activity and des-Arg(9)-bradykinin synovial levels were also measured. Similar tools were used to investigate the effects of ACEi on a low dose of MSU (0.0125 mg/articulation)-induced inflammation.Kinin B1R antagonism or gene deletion largely reduced all painful and inflammatory signs of gout. Furthermore, MSU increased B1R expression in articular tissues, the content of the B1 agonist des-Arg(9)-bradykinin and the activity of the B1 agonist-forming enzyme kininase I. A low dose of MSU crystals, which did not induce inflammation in control animals, caused signs of acute gout attacks in ACEi-treated animals that were B1R-dependent.Kinin B1R contributes to acute gouty attacks, including the ones facilitated by ACEi. Therefore, B1R is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment and prophylaxis of gout, especially in patients taking ACEi.
- A gender gap in primary and secondary heart dysfunctions in systemic sclerosis: a EUSTAR prospective study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2014 Oct 23.
In agreement with other autoimmune diseases, systemic sclerosis (SSc) is associated with a strong sex bias. However, unlike lupus, the effects of sex on disease phenotype and prognosis are poorly known. Therefore, we aimed to determine sex effects on outcomes.We performed a prospective observational study using the latest 2013 data extract from the EULAR scleroderma trials and research (EUSTAR) cohort. We looked at (i) sex influence on disease characteristics at baseline and (ii) then focused on patients with at least 2 years of follow-up to estimate the effects of sex on disease progression and survival.9182 patients with SSc were available (1321 men) for the baseline analyses. In multivariate analysis, male sex was independently associated with a higher risk of diffuse cutaneous subtype (OR: 1.68, (1.45 to 1.94); p<0.001), a higher frequency of digital ulcers (OR: 1.28 (1.11 to 1.47); p<0.001) and pulmonary hypertension (OR: 3.01 (1.47 to 6.20); p<0.003). In the longitudinal analysis (n=4499), after a mean follow-up of 4.9 (±2.7) years, male sex was predictive of new onset of pulmonary hypertension (HR: 2.66 (1.32 to 5.36); p=0.006) and heart failure (HR: 2.22 (1.06 to 4.63); p=0.035). 908 deaths were recorded, male sex predicted deaths of all origins (HR: 1.48 (1.19 to 1.84); p<0.001), but did not significantly account for SSc-related deaths.Although more common in women, SSc appears as strikingly more severe in men. Our results obtained through the largest worldwide database demonstrate a higher risk of severe cardiovascular involvement in men. These results raise the point of including sex in the management and the decision-making process.
- The antibody response against human and chimeric anti-TNF therapeutic antibodies primarily targets the TNF binding region. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2014 Oct 23.
In a subset of patients, anti tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapeutic antibodies are immunogenic, resulting in the formation of antidrug antibodies (ADAs). Neutralising ADAs compete with TNF for its binding site and reduces the effective serum concentration, causing clinical non-response. It is however unknown to which extent ADAs are neutralising.To study which proportion of antibodies to human(ised) anti-TNF (adalimumab, golimumab, certolizumab) as well as chimeric anti-TNF (infliximab) is neutralising.Neutralising capacity of ADAs was assessed using a TNF competition assay in ADA-positive sera of patients treated with adalimumab (n=21), golimumab (n=4), certolizumab (n=9) or infliximab (n=34) sent in to our diagnostic department.In 34 sera with ADAs to adalimumab, golimumab or certolizumab, >97% of the antibodies were neutralising. In 34 sera with ADAs to infliximab >90% of the antibodies were neutralising. Further characterisation of the broader antibody response to infliximab revealed that non-neutralising antibodies to infliximab do not target murine domains, but may bind infliximab-unique domains not involved in TNF binding (located outside the paratope).Our study shows that ADAs to human(ised) as well as chimeric anti-TNF therapeutic antibodies are largely neutralising. This highly restricted ADA response suggests an immunodominant role for the paratope of anti-TNF therapeutics.
- Risk of vascular disease with gout: overadjustment of the statistical analyses? [LETTER]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2014 Oct 21.