Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases [journal]
- The concept of axial spondyloarthritis. Lessons from the INFAST study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2013 Dec 6.
- Correction. [Journal Article]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2014 Jan 1; 73(1):320.
- A novel method for bone area measurement provides new insights into osteoarthritis and its progression. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2013 Dec 4.
Modern image analysis enables the accurate quantification of knee osteoarthritis (OA) bone using MRI. We hypothesised that three-dimensional changes in bone would be characteristic of OA and provide a responsive measure of progression.1312 participants with radiographic knee OA, and 885 non-OA controls with MRIs at baseline, 1, 2 and 4 years were selected from the NIH Osteoarthritis Initiative. Automated segmentation of all knee bones and calculation of bone area was performed using active appearance models. In a subset of 352 participants, responsiveness of bone area change was compared with change in radiographic joint space width (JSW) and MRI cartilage thickness over a 2-year period.All OA knee compartments showed increased bone area over time compared with non-OA participants: for example, the 4-year percentage change from baseline in medial femur area for OA (95% CI) was 1.87(0.13), non-OA 0.43 (0.07); p<0.0001. Bone area change was more responsive than cartilage thickness or JSW; 2-year SRM for bone area in the medial femur was 0.83, for the most responsive cartilage thickness measure central medial femorotibial composite (cMFTC): 0.38, JSW: 0.35. Almost half of all knees had change greater than smallest detectable difference at 2 years. Body mass index, gender and alignment had only a small effect on the rate of change of bone area.Changes in bone area discriminated people with OA from controls and was more responsive than the current and impending standards for assessing OA progression. The shape change in OA bone provides a new window on OA pathogenesis and a focus for clinical trials.
- Cathepsin S inhibition suppresses systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis because cathepsin S is essential for MHC class II-mediated CD4 T cell and B cell priming. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2013 Dec 3.
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-mediated priming of T and B lymphocytes is a central element of autoimmunity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis. The cysteine protease cathepsin S degrades the invariant peptide chain during MHC II assembly with antigenic peptide in antigen-presenting cells; therefore, we hypothesised that cathepsin S inhibition would be therapeutic in SLE.We developed a highly specific small molecule, orally available, cathepsin S antagonist, RO5461111, with suitable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties that efficiently suppressed antigen-specific T cell and B cell priming in vitro and in vivo.When given to MRL-Fas(lpr) mice with SLE and lupus nephritis, RO5461111 significantly reduced the activation of spleen dendritic cells and the subsequent expansion and activation of CD4 T cells and CD4/CD8 double-negative T cells. Cathepsin S inhibition impaired the spatial organisation of germinal centres, suppressed follicular B cell maturation to plasma cells and Ig class switch. This reversed hypergammaglobulinemia and significantly suppressed the plasma levels of numerous IgG (but not IgM) autoantibodies below baseline, including anti-dsDNA. This effect was associated with less glomerular IgG deposits, which protected kidneys from lupus nephritis.Together, cathepsin S promotes SLE by driving MHC class II-mediated T and B cell priming, germinal centre formation and B cell maturation towards plasma cells. These afferent immune pathways can be specifically reversed with the cathepsin S antagonist RO5461111, which prevents lupus nephritis progression even when given after disease onset. This novel therapeutic strategy could correct a common pathomechanism of SLE and other immune complex-related autoimmune diseases.
- Performance of the new 2012 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica: comparison with the previous criteria in a single-centre study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2013 Dec 2.
To compare the performance of published classification/diagnostic criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), including the new 2012 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, in a single-centre study.We studied all consecutive patients with new-onset PMR seen in our centre over 6 years, whose diagnosis was confirmed during a prospective 12-month follow-up period. Subjects were classified by each of the seven different criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were compared. Control population consisted of all consecutive patients aged ≥50 years seen in a 4-year period in our early arthritis clinic who had a 12-month confirmation of a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or other inflammatory articular diseases.Data were collected from 136 cases and 149 controls, including 94 patients with RA. The most sensitive criteria were the new 2012 EULAR/ACR classification criteria (92.6%). Adding ultrasound (US) specificity increased from 81.5% to 91.3% in total cases and from 79.7% to 89.9% in RA. Bird criteria had a sensitivity of 89.2% but the lowest specificity (40.2% in total cases and 72.5% in RA). Jones and Nobunaga criteria were the most specific criteria (96.7% and 97.8% in total cases and 98.6% and 99.5% in RA) but the less sensitive (63.1% and 58.2%) ones. Overall, discriminatory ability, as reflected by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was better for the 2012 US EULAR/ACR criteria (0.920 in total cases and 0.910 in RA).The new EULAR/ACR criteria in new-onset PMR patients perform best in discriminating PMR from RA and other inflammatory articular diseases. Ultrasound further increases the specificity of the criteria.
- Methotrexate polyglutamates in erythrocytes are associated with lower disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2013 Dec 5.
To investigate if erythrocyte-methotrexate-polyglutamate (MTX-PG) concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are associated with disease activity or adverse events.We used a longitudinal study design with two cohorts. The derivation cohort included 102 and the validation cohort included 285 patients with RA on MTX. We measured erythrocyte-MTX-PG with 1-5 glutamate residues at 3 months, 6 months and 9 months after MTX start with a liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS assay. Outcomes were disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) and adverse events. Longitudinal associations of MTX-PG concentrations after 3 months, 6 months and 9 months with DAS28 were tested with a linear mixed model adjusted for age, gender, baseline DAS28, MTX dose and comedication.In the derivation cohort, mean DAS28 decreased from 4.26 (SE=0.14) at baseline to 2.72 (SE=0.13) after 9 months. Thirty per cent of patients in the derivation cohort experienced more than three adverse events after 3 months, which decreased to 18% after 9 months. In the validation cohort, DAS28 and adverse events were comparable with the derivation cohort. In the derivation cohort, MTX-PG1 (ß=-0.005), MTX-PG2 (ß=-0.022), MTX-PG3 (β=-0.007) and total MTX-PG (ß=-0.004) were associated (p<0.05) with lower DAS28 over 9 months. In the validation cohort, MTX-PG2 (ß=-0.015), MTX-PG3 (ß=-0.010), MTX-PG4 (ß=-0.008) and total MTX-PG (ß=-0.003) were associated with lower DAS28 over 9 months. None of the MTX-PGs was associated with adverse events.In this first longitudinal study, we showed that an increase in erythrocyte-MTX-PG concentration was associated with a decreased DAS28 over 9 months in two cohorts, and is therefore a potential tool for therapeutic drug monitoring of MTX in RA.
- Identification of anticitrullinated protein antibody reactivities in a subset of anti-CCP-negative rheumatoid arthritis: association with cigarette smoking and HLA-DRB1 'shared epitope' alleles. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2013 Dec 2.
A hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the development of autoantibodies targeting proteins that contain citrulline. Anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) are currently detected by the commercial cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) assay, which uses a mix of cyclised citrullinated peptides as an artificial mimic of the true antigen(s). To increase the sensitivity of ACPA detection and dissect ACPA specificities, we developed a multiplex assay that profiles ACPAs by measuring their reactivity to the citrullinated peptides and proteins derived from RA joint tissue.We created a bead-based, citrullinated antigen array to profile ACPAs. This custom array contains 16 citrullinated peptides and proteins detected in RA synovial tissues. We used the array to profile ACPAs in sera from a cohort of patients with RA and other non-inflammatory arthritides, as well as sera from an independent cohort of RA patients for whom data were available on carriage of HLA-DRB1 'shared epitope' (SE) alleles and history of cigarette smoking.Our multiplex assay showed that at least 10% of RA patients who tested negative in the commercial CCP assay possessed ACPAs. Carriage of HLA-DRB1 SE alleles and a history of cigarette smoking were associated with an increase in ACPA reactivity-in anti-CCP(+) RA and in a subset of anti-CCP(-) RA.Our multiplex assay can identify ACPA-positive RA patients missed by the commercial CCP assay, thus enabling greater diagnostic sensitivity. Further, our findings suggest that cigarette smoking and possession of HLA-DRB1 SE alleles contribute to the development of ACPAs in anti-CCP(-) RA.
- Sarilumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against IL-6Rα in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to methotrexate: efficacy and safety results from the randomised SARIL-RA-MOBILITY Part A trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2013 Dec 2.
To evaluate safety and efficacy of weekly (qw) and every other week (q2w) dosing of sarilumab, a fully human anti-interleukin 6 receptor α (anti-IL-6Rα) monoclonal antibody, for moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA).In this dose-ranging study, patients (n=306) with active RA, despite methotrexate, were randomly assigned to placebo or one of five subcutaneous doses/regimens of sarilumab: 100 mg q2w, 150 mg q2w, 100 mg qw, 200 mg q2w, 150 mg qw for 12 weeks, plus methotrexate. The primary end point was ACR20 at Week 12. Secondary endpoints included ACR50, ACR70, Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (C reactive protein). Safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and efficacy in population subgroups were assessed.The proportion of patients achieving an ACR20 response compared with placebo was significantly higher for sarilumab 150 mg qw (72.0% vs 46.2%, multiplicity adjusted p=0.0203). Higher ACR20 responses were also attained with 150 mg q2w (67%; unadjusted (nominal) p=0.0363) and 200 mg q2w (65%; unadjusted p=0.0426) versus placebo. Sarilumab ≥150 mg q2w reduced C reactive protein, which did not return to baseline between dosing intervals. Infections were the most common adverse event; none were serious. Changes in laboratory values (neutropenia, transaminases and lipids) were consistent with reports with other IL-6Rα inhibitors.Sarilumab improved signs and symptoms of RA over 12 weeks in patients with moderate-to-severe RA with a safety profile similar to reports with other IL-6 inhibitors. Sarilumab 150 mg and sarilumab 200 mg q2w had the most favourable efficacy, safety and dosing convenience and are being further evaluated in Phase III.
- Anti-inflammatory effects of cell-based therapy with tyrosine hydroxylase-positive catecholaminergic cells in experimental arthritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2013 Dec 2.
Studies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA) and mice with arthritis demonstrated tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) cells in arthritic synovium and parallel loss of sympathetic nerve fibres. The exact function of TH(+) cells and mode of TH induction are not known.Synovial cells of RA/OA were isolated and cultured under normoxic/hypoxic conditions with/without stimulating enzyme cofactors of TH and inhibitors of TH. We studied TH expression and release of cytokines/catecholamines. In vivo function was tested by cell therapy with TH(+) neuronal precursor cells (TH(+) neuronal cells) in DBA/1 mice with collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA).Compared with normoxic conditions, hypoxia increased TH protein expression and catecholamine synthesis and decreased release of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in OA/RA synovial cells. This inhibitory effect on TNF was reversed by TH inhibition with α-methyl-para-tyrosine (αMPT), which was particularly evident under hypoxic conditions. Incubation with specific TH cofactors (tetrahydrobiopterin and Fe(2+)) increased hypoxia-induced inhibition of TNF, which was also reversed by αMPT. To address a possible clinical role of TH(+) cells, murine TH(+) neuronal cells were generated from mesenchymal stem cells. TH(+) neuronal cells exhibited a typical catecholaminergic phenotype. Adoptive transfer of TH(+) neuronal cells markedly reduced CIA in mice, and 6-hydroxydopamine, which depletes TH(+) cells, reversed this effect.The anti-inflammatory effect of TH(+) neuronal cells on experimental arthritis has been presented for the first time. In RA/OA, TH(+) synovial cells have TH-dependent anti-inflammatory capacities, which are augmented under hypoxia. Using generated TH(+) neuronal cells might open new avenues for cell-based therapy.